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NME Introduction to Endocrinology


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Homeostasis
The process through which the body regulates its internal environment, maintaining stable, constant condition of properties such as temperature or pH
Nervous and endocrine
The [______] and [_______] systems work together to achieve homeostasis
Short
In regards to homeostasis, the nervous system is [____]-term
Long
In regards to homeostasis, the endocrine system is [____]-term
Neurotransmitters
Nervous system chemical messengers
Hormones
Endocrine system chemical messengers
Exocrine gland
A gland that has one or more ducts
Endocrine gland
A gland that secretes directly into the bloodstream
Endocrine signalling
Cell signalling: hormone is produced by a ductless gland or tissue and carried in the blood to its target organ
Paracrine signalling
Cell signalling: hormone is released from effector cell to interact with a different target cell
Autocrine signalling
Cell signalling: hormone is released from effector cell to interact with original effector cell or similar cell types
Paracrine and autocrine
The two types of cell signalling which are locally acting
Juxtacrine signalling
Cell signalling: hormone is released from effector cell surface and interacts directly with target cell via cell-cell contact
Intracrine signalling
Cell signalling: hormone is released from effector cell to bind to a receptor within the effector cell
Signal transduction
A received hormone signal is amplified via this process
Regulatory
Positive and negative feedback loops are examples of [________] circuits
Slow
A negative feedback loop tends to [slow/accelerate] a process
Accelerate
A positive feedback loop tends to [slow/accelerate] a process
Peptide, amide and steroid
The three types of hormone
Insulin
An example of a peptide hormone
Thyroxine
An example of an amide hormone
Testosterone
An example of a steroid hormone
Cholesterol
The key structural component of steroid hormones
Steroid body
Steroid hormones are identifiable by the presence of a [_______]
Nucleus
Steroid hormones diffuse through the cell membrane to act on the [______]
Gene expression and mRNA
Steroid hormones function by activating [_____], resulting in the production of [_____]
Slow
Steroid hormones are [fast/slow] acting
Nuclear receptor
Receptors found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules
2
Nuclear receptors can be placed into [__] broad categories
Cytosol
Type 1 nuclear receptors are found in the [_____] of a cell
Nucleus
Type 2 nuclear receptors are found in the [_____] of a cell
Estrogen receptor
Nuclear receptor superfamily: ER
Progesterone receptor
Nuclear receptor superfamily: PR
Glucocorticoid receptor
Nuclear receptor superfamily: GR
Thyroxine receptor
Nuclear receptor superfamily: TR
Retinoic acid receptor
Nuclear receptor superfamily: RAR
DNA and ligand
As well as a variable region, all nuclear receptors have a [___]-binding domain and a [___]-binding domain
Dimer
A chemical entity consisting of two structurally similar monomers joined by bonds
Homodimer
A dimer formed from two identical molecules (e.g. A-A)
Heterodimer
A dimer formed from two different molecules (e.g. A-B)
1
Type [_] nuclear receptors exist as monomers which form homodimers
2
Type [_] nuclear receptors exist as heterodimers
Membrane
Amine and peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell [membrane/nucleus]
Tyrosine and tryptophan
Amine-derived hormones are derivatives of the amino acids [_____] and [_____]
Melatonin
The 'sleep' hormone, released in response to night or day
Peptide hormone
The most common class of hormone
Plasma carrier proteins
All classes of hormone travel in [_____]
Prevents destruction
The benefit of plasma carrier proteins for peptide hormones
Increases water solubility
The benefit of plasma carrier proteins for steroid and thyroid hormones
Prevents excretion
The benefit of plasma carrier proteins for amino acid derived hormones
Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands and adrenal glands
Five of the main endocrine organs