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Klinefelters syndrome
A male sex chromosome abnormality caused by an additional X chromosome. Boys present with hypogonadism and gynaecomastia
XYY syndrome
A sex chromosome abnormality affecting males. Has been linked to violent behaviour
Gastrulation
A phase in embryonic development where the blastula is organised into the three germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm
Neurulation
A phase in embryonic development where the neural tube is formed
Gastrulation then neurulation
The order of two important phases of early embryonic development
Ectoderm
One of three primary germ layers. Emerges first and forms the outer layer of germ cells
Mesoderm
One of three primary germ layers. Arises from ectoderm and forms the middle layer
Endoderm
One of three primary germ layers. Arises from ectoderm and forms the intermost layer
Neural tube
The embryo's precursor to the central nervous system. Arises from ectoderm
Notochord
A flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos. Lies ventral to the neural tube
Medially, laterally
Fill in the directions of movement. Cells migrate [_______] to the primitive streak, drop through and migrate out [_______] again
Induced pluripotent stem cell
A type of pluripotent stem cell artificially derived from a non-pluripotent cell - typically an adult somatic cell - by inducing a "forced" expression of specific genes
... embryonic behaviour
Cancer is a reversion to ...
Tumours
Structures, other than muscle, that can produce angiogenic factors, allowing them to vascularise and grow
Karyotype and full blood count
Post-birth methods of Down's screening
Congenital atrio-ventricular septal defect
A condition commonly associated with Down's that is abbreviated to CAVSD
25%
The percentage of birth defects genetics are responsible for