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Level 115

LC 46 - 60 +3

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Substances or environmental agents which cause the development of abnormal cell masses during fetal growth, resulting in physical defects in the fetus.
The percentage of birth defects teratogens are responsible for
44 in 10,000
Incidence of heart defects per 10,000 pregnancies
The percentage of birth defects with unknown causes
Biological rubella, physical x-rays and chemical thalidomide
Three main types of teratogenic agent with examples
Neural tube defects
A group of conditions affecting the neural tube that are the most common conditions with a genetic component
4 in 1000
Incidence of NTDs during pregnancies in GB and Ireland in the 1960s
9 in 1000
The upper most incidence of NTDs during pregnancies in GB and Ireland (some localities)
Spina bifida occulta
A condition where a spinous process is missing from one of the vertebra. Spinal cord unaffected, tuft of hair present
Spina bifida cystica
A collective term for a pair of conditions where the meninges have herniated from the spine
A protrusion of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it
The system of membranes which envelops the central nervous system. The primary function of the [________] and of the cerebrospinal fluid is to protect the central nervous system.
A NTD where only the meninges, and not the spinal nerves, herniate from the spine
A NTD where both the meninges and the spinal nerves herniate from the spine
A type of NTD with extensive defects in the craniovertebral bone, leaving the brain exposed to amniotic fluid
Cover neural tissue with muscle/skin flap
A possible method of correcting NTDs via surgery - currently practised on sheep
The percentage reduction of NTD occurrence after folic acid supplements at 400 micrograms/day
First trimester
The trimester in which supplementation of folic acid is effective at preventing NTDs