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Systematic review
A study that assesses the results of previous studies
Meta-analysis
A statistical synthesis of the numerical results of several trials
Meta-analysis, systematic review, RCTs
The hierarchy of evidence, from most important to least important. [_______], [_______], [_______], cohort, case controls and uncontrolled observational
Cohort, case controls and uncontrolled observational
The hierarchy of evidence, from most important to least important. Meta-analysis, systematic review, RCTs, [_______] [_______] and [_______]
Larger combined sample size
Some of the studies may not be valid
Forest plot
A graphical representation of a meta-analysis
A study
What does each horizontal line represent in a forest plot?
The point effect estimate
What does the mid-point of each box on a forest plot represent?
The estimate of the true effect in population
What is the point effect estimate of a forest plot?
The weight of the study
What does the size of each box represent in a forest plot?
The overall point effect estimate
What does the diamond represent on a forest plot?
The confidence interval
What does the width of each line represent on a forest plot?
The overall confidence interval
What does the width of the diamond represent on a forest plot?
No statistical significance
In a forest plot, what does it mean if a confidence interval overlaps the central line (1)?
Statistical significance
In a forest plot, what does it mean if a confidence interval does not overlap the central line (1)?
Funnel plot
A graph which shows publication bias, if present
No
If a funnel plot is symmetrical, is there publication bias?
Yes
If a funnel plot is asymmetrical, is there publication bias?
Where journals are more likely to publish positive findings
What is publication bias?