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Systematic review

A study that assesses the results of previous studies

Meta-analysis

A statistical synthesis of the numerical results of several trials

Meta-analysis, systematic review, RCTs

The hierarchy of evidence, from most important to least important. [_______], [_______], [_______], cohort, case controls and uncontrolled observational

Cohort, case controls and uncontrolled observational

The hierarchy of evidence, from most important to least important. Meta-analysis, systematic review, RCTs, [_______] [_______] and [_______]

Larger combined sample size

An advantage of a meta-analysis

Some of the studies may not be valid

A disadvantage of a meta-analysis

Forest plot

A graphical representation of a meta-analysis

A study

What does each horizontal line represent in a forest plot?

The point effect estimate

What does the mid-point of each box on a forest plot represent?

The estimate of the true effect in population

What is the point effect estimate of a forest plot?

The weight of the study

What does the size of each box represent in a forest plot?

The overall point effect estimate

What does the diamond represent on a forest plot?

The confidence interval

What does the width of each line represent on a forest plot?

The overall confidence interval

What does the width of the diamond represent on a forest plot?

No statistical significance

In a forest plot, what does it mean if a confidence interval overlaps the central line (1)?

Statistical significance

In a forest plot, what does it mean if a confidence interval does not overlap the central line (1)?

Funnel plot

A graph which shows publication bias, if present

No

If a funnel plot is symmetrical, is there publication bias?

Yes

If a funnel plot is asymmetrical, is there publication bias?

Where journals are more likely to publish positive findings

What is publication bias?