Level 152 Level 154
Level 153

## Ignore words

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Identifying the presence of a disease
The definition of diagnosis
Reference standard
The criteria for confirmation of a diagnosis
Validation study
A type of study that compares a diagnostic test against its reference standard
True positive
If a disease is present, and the diagnostic test is positive, then the result is a [_______]
False positive
If a disease is absent, and the diagnostic test is positive, then the result is a [_______]
False negative
If a disease is present, and the diagnostic test is negative, then the result is a [_______]
True negative
If a disease is absent, and the diagnostic test is negative, then the result is a [_______]
Sensitivity
The proportion of people with a disease who have a positive test result
Specificity
The proportion of people without a disease who have a negative test result
Positive predictive value
Diagnosis: How accurate the positive test is
Negative predictive value
Diagnosis: How accurate the negative test is
Accuracy
The proportion of people with the correct test result
Prevalence
The proportion of people who have the disease in the study population
A
Diagnosis Calculations: true positive is [_]
B
Diagnosis Calculations: false positive is [_]
C
Diagnosis Calculations: false negative is [_]
D
Diagnosis Calculations: true negative is [_]
___________________ A / (A+C)
The calculation for calculating sensitivity
___________________ D / (B+D)
The calculation for calculating specificity
___________________ A / (A+B)
The calculation for calculating positive predictive value
___________________ D / (C+D)
The calculation for calculating negative predictive value
___________________ (A+D) / Total
The calculation for calculating accuracy
___________________ (A+C) / Total
The calculation for calculating prevalence
Positive likelihood ratio
Diagnosis: A measure of how much more likely it is for a positive test to occur in a person with a disease
Negative likelihood ratio
Diagnosis: A measure of how much more likely it is for a negative test to occur in a person free from a disease
Post-test probability
Diagnosis: The likelihood that a person actually has or doesn't have a disease, based on their test result
Pre-test probability
Diagnosis: The likelihood that a person actually has or doesn't have a disease, based on prevalence in society
Positive and in
When a sign, test or symptom has an extremely high SPECIFICITY (say, over 95%), a [______] result tends to rule [___] the diagnosis
Negative and out
When a sign, test or symptom has an extremely high SENSITIVITY (say, over 95%), a [______] result tends to rule [___] the diagnosis
Pregnancy test
Example of a diagnostic test with a high specificity
Faecal occult blood test
Example of a diagnostic test with a high sensitivity
Specificity
A pregnancy test has a high [sensitivity/specificity]
Sensitivity
A faecal occult blood test has a high [sensitivity/specificity]
Sensitivity
A brain natriuretic peptide has a high [sensitivity/specificity]
Sensitivity
A loss of retinal vein pulsation has a high [sensitivity/specificity]
Specificity
3 or more yes on CAGE has a high [sensitivity/specificity]