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Level 27

CVRR 31 - 45

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Intra-arterial route
Drug injected into blood via an artery
Intrathecal route
Drug injected into spinal canal
Nasal route
Drug inhaled by aerosol
Proportion of drug dose which appears in systemic circulation following administration
First-pass metabolism
A phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation - linked with the wall of the gut, and the liver
Advantages of oral administration
Convenient (storage, portability, pre-measured dose), economical, non-invasive, often safer route, requires no special training
Disadvantages of oral administration
Drug delivery is often erratic and incomplete, highly dependent upon patient compliance, increased sources of drug-drug and drug-nutrient interactions, many drugs degrade in GI environment, exposes dr
Advantages of sublingual administration
Rapid onset – greater peak concentrations, avoids first-pass effect, ability to swallow is not required
Disadvantages of sublingual administration
Few drugs adequately absorbed, patients must avoid swallowing, compliance difficult
Advantages of rectal administration
Can be used when patients cannot take oral medications, may be preferred route in paediatric patients, may avoid first-pass metabolism
Disadvantages of rectal administration
Absorption from solid dosage forms erratic, many patients have an aversion to rectal administration
Advantages of topical administration
Used for local effects - minimizes systemic side effects, for systemic use - may mimic IV infusion, avoid first-pass effect
Disadvantages of topical administration
Cosmetically unappealing, may display erratic absorption
Advantages of pulmonary administration
Easy to titrate dose, rapid onset, for local effect - maximize benefit/minimize side effects
Disadvantages of pulmonary administration
Takes significant degree of coordination, patients with lung disease may not be able to inhale adequately, variability in delivery