Level 27 Level 29
Level 28

CVRR 46 - 60

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Forms of pulmonary delivery
Metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler, nebulizer
Advantages of intravenous administration
Rapid achievement of concentration, precise delivery of dosage, easy to titrate dose
Disadvantages of intravenous administration
High initial concentration (possibly toxic), invasive due to risk of infection, requires a certain level of skill
Injection sites for intramuscular administration
Drug usually injected in the arm or buttocks
Advantages of intramuscular administration
Less skill necessary for administration, can be used to administer oily vehicles, prompt absorption from aqueous solution
Disadvantages of intramuscular administration
Painful, cannot be used in presence of abnormal clotting time, drug may precipitate at the site of administration, variability in bioavailability
Oily vehicle
Oily coating on a drug which slows down its release after administration
Advantages of subcutaneous administration
Prompt absorption from aqueous solutions, little training necessary, avoid harsh GI tract environment, can be used for suspensions
Disadvantages of subcutaneous administration
Cannot be used for large volumes, potential pain and tissue damage, variability in absorption from various sites
Splanchnic blood flow
Blood flow to the bowel
Blood brain barrier
Barrier between systemic and cerebral circulatory systems
Phase 1 drug metabolism
A phase of drug metabolism that involves oxidation (reduction and hydrolysis) by cytochrome P450 enzymes
Phase 2 drug metabolism
A phase of drug metabolism that involves conjugation, whereby a drug is made inactive by the addition of a substituent group
Anti-platelet drug
P450 inhibitors
Substances that inhibit enzymes involved in phase 1 metabolism