Level 31 Level 33
Level 32

CVRR 106 - 120 +2


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Acute coronary syndrome
This syndrome refers to any group of symptoms attributed to obstruction of the coronary arteries.
Troponin T
Levels of this protein increase proportionally with damage to cardiac tissue.
Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)
A drug administered via a sublingual spray that is used to treat angina.
Morphine
A commonly used analgesic.
Angiogram
A medical imaging technique used to look inside the lumen of blood vessels, such as coronary arteries, utilising radiodense dye.
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
A way to see electrical activity within the heart, which correspond with depolarisation and repolarisation of different sections (i.e. atria, ventricles).
Systemic circulation
The part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Pulmonary circulation
The half portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood back to the heart.
Cardiac Output = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume
This is the formula for calculating cardiac output.
Cardiac output
The total amount of blood pumped by one side of the heart per unit time.
Stroke volume
The total amount of blood pumped by one side of the heart per heart beat.
Heart rate
Number of heart beats per unit time.
Systemic Pressure = Cardiac Output x Total Peripheral Resistance
This is the formula for calculating systemic pressure.
Action potential
An ordered change in membrane potential.
Pressure = Flow x Resistance
This is the formula for calculating pressure
Gap junctions
[_______] allow action potentials to spread between cells