Level 32 Level 34
Level 33

CVRR 121 - 134 +4


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Sinoatrial node
A group of pacemaker cells located in the right atrium. Beats at 100 bpm.
Atrioventricular node
A group of pacemaker cells located in the atrioventricular septum. Beats at 50 bpm.
Bundle of His/Purkinje fibres
Two groups of pacemaker cells located in the conduction system of the heart. Beats at 30 bpm.
-70mV
Resting membrane potential in mV.
Depolarisation
Membrane potential becomes less negative.
Repolarisation
Membrane potential returns to negative resting potential.
Hyperpolarisation
Membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential.
Prepotential
A steady increase in depolarisation unique to pacemaker cells that allows the membrane to depolarise spontaneously.
Autonomic nervous system
An involuntary part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness, and controls visceral functions.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The nervous system which is responsible for stimulation of 'rest-and-digest' or 'feed and breed' activities that occur when the body is at rest. Slows down the heart.
Sympathetic nervous system
The nervous system whose general action is to mobilize the body's fight-or-flight response. Speeds up the heart.
Tachycardia
A high heart rate that exceeds 100 bpm.
Bradycardia
A low heart rate that falls below 60 bpm.
Inulin
Extracellular fluid marker
K+, Na+, Ca2+
Prepotentials work through a decline in [__] permeability, an increase in [__] permeability and an increase in [__] permeability
Noradrenaline
The primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system
B1 adrenoceptors
The sympathetic system changes heart rate via noradrenaline acting on [_______]
Acetylcholine
The primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system
Muscarinic cholinergic receptors
The parasympathetic system changes heart rate via acetylcholine acting on [_______]