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Level 34

CVRR 07a+b


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Tetanisation
A process associated with a single, prolonged contraction - physiologically prevented in cardiac muscle, but can occur in skeletal muscle
-55mV
The voltage (in mV) that a pacemaker cell's prepotential must reach before hitting threshold potential and causing an action potential
Calcium
In pacemaker cells, parasympathetic activity slows the opening of [_______] channels, making them take longer to reach threshold
More negative resting potential, sharp upsweep
Four characteristics exclusive to cardiac myocytes and not pacemaker cells. [_______], [_______], long shoulder and long repolarisation
Long shoulder and long repolarisation
Four characteristics exclusive to cardiac myocytes and not pacemaker cells. More negative resting potential, sharp upsweep, [_______] and [_______]
Refractory period
Cardiac myocytes have a limit to how many times they can be stimulated by action potentials. The period in which stimulation cannot occur again is called a [_______]
Ca2+
The ion that prompts cardiac muscle filaments to contract
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
An organelle present in cardiac myocytes that acts as a calcium store
Troponin C
In the process of muscular contraction, Ca2+ ions bind to [_______] on actin filaments
ATP
Rigor mortis occurs because muscles cannot be relaxed without [___]
Calcium-induced calcium-release
A positive feedback system in cardiac myocytes that is crucial in causing muscular contraction. Triggered by a specific ion
Sodium-potassium, sodium-calcium
Cardiac glycosides work by inhibiting the [_______] pump, which then inhibits a [_______] pump, causing increased levels of intracellular Calcium and therefore increased force of contraction
Calcium, force of contraction
Cardiac glycosides work by inhibiting the Sodium-potassium pump, which then inhibits a sodium-calcium 'pump' (exchanger NCX), causing increased levels of intracellular [_______] and therefore increased [_______]
Phospholambin
A protein that when phosphorylated speeds up the pumping of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum