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Level 47

CVRR 15 Embryology of the Heart


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Septum primum
The name given to the partition growing from the roof of the primitive atria that separates it into left and right
Ostium primum
The opening between the developing left and right atria whilst the septum primum is developing
Ostium secundum
The opening that develops in the septum primum once it is complete
Septum secundum
The second partition, growing from the roof of the right atrium, that creates a valve
Interventricular septum
The name given to the partition growing from the roof of the primitive ventricle that separates it into left and right
44 in 10,000
The number of babies per 10,000 live births that have a heart abnormality
20%
Congenital heart defects represent about [__]% of all liveborn infants with congenital abnormalities
4%
The percentage of congenital heart defects caused by single gene mutations
6%
The percentage of congenital heart defects caused by chromosomal abnormalities
5%
The percentage of congenital heart defects caused by teratogens
85%
The percentage of congenital heart defects due to unknown/multifactorial causes
25-50%
The percentage of congenital heart defects that are ventricular septal defects
10%
The percentage of congenital heart defects that are atrial septal defects
10%
The percentage of congenital heart defects that are tetralogy of Fallot
25%
The percentage of congenital heart defects that are patent ductus arteriosus
10%
The percentage of congenital heart defects that are coarctation of the aorta
Cyanosis, rapid breathing, poor weight gain
Typical symptoms of a child with a ventricular septal defect. [_______], [_______], [_______], slow feeding and chest infections
Slow feeding and chest infections
Typical symptoms of a child with a ventricular septal defect. Cyanosis, rapid breathing, poor weight gain, [_______] and [_______]
Down's syndrome
Atrial septal defects may be associated with this condition
Walking commences
Atrial septal defects can go unnoticed until [_______]
Stenosis between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
The four major consequences of tetralogy of Fallot. [_______], Ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy and a overriding aorta
Ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy
The four major consequences of tetralogy of Fallot. Stenosis between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, [_______], [_______] and a overriding aorta
overriding aorta
The four major consequences of tetralogy of Fallot. Stenosis between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, Ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy and a [_______]
Cyanosis and clubbing
Typical symptoms of a child with tetralogy of Fallot
Patent ductus arteriosus
A congenital heart defect that can be asymptomatic
Hypoxia during birth and lower body cyanosis
Possible symptoms of a child with patent ductus arteriosus
Pulmonary hypertension
A possible long-term complication of patent ductus arteriosus
Murmurs, thrills and reduction of femoral pulse
Possible symptoms of a child with coarctation of the aorta
Congestive heart failure
An associated condition of coarctation of the aorta, typically occurring between 2 and 6 weeks after birth