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Level 49

CVRR 18 Autonomic Physiology & Pharmacology


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Acetylcholine
The preganglionic neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Norepinephrine
The postganglionic neurotransmitter used by the sympathetic nervous system
Acetylcholine
The postganglionic neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system
Nicotinic receptor
The type of receptor found in autonomic ganglions (both sympathetic and parasympathetic)
Adrenergic receptor
The type of postganglionic receptor used by the sympathetic nervous system
Muscarinic receptor
The type of postganglionic receptor used by the parasympathetic nervous system
Nicotinic and muscarinic
The two types of cholinergic receptor
Neural and gastric
The areas of the body that have M1 (muscarinic) receptors
Cardiac and presynaptic
The areas of the body that have M2 (muscarinic) receptors
Glands and smooth muscle
The areas of the body that have M3 (muscarinic) receptors
Cholinesterase
The enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
Neostigmine
A drug that inhibits cholinesterase, meaning less acetylcholine is broken down
Hemicholinium
A drug that blocks choline uptake (choline being a substituent of acetylcholine)
Parasympathomimetics
A term used to describe drugs that mimic the parasympathetic system
Bethanechol
A parasympathomimetic used in the treatment of bladder and/or GI hypotonia
Pilocarpine
A parasympathomimetic used in the treatment of glaucoma
Parasympatholytics
A term used to describe drugs that inhibit the parasympathetic system
Atropine
A parasympathloytic used to induce tachycardia
Ipratropium
A parasympatholytic used in emergency cases of asthma
Hyoscine
A parasympatholytic with effects on the CNS, used to treat motion sickness
Smooth muscle contraction
The effect of α-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation
Increased heart rate and contractility
The effect of β-1 adrenergic receptor stimulation
Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle
The effect of β-2 adrenergic receptor stimulation
Phenylephrine
An example of a selective α-1 adrenergic agonist
Prazosin
An example of a selective α-1 adrenergic antagonist
Dobutamine
An example of a selective β-1 adrenergic agonist
Atenolol
An example of a selective β-1 adrenergic antagonist
Salbutamol
An example of a selective β-2 adrenergic agonist
Butoxamine
An example of a selective β-2 adrenergic antagonist
Verapamil
A calcium channel blocker that should NEVER be prescribed alongside beta blockers, as it will result in asystole
Ca2+, increasing
Sympathetic stimulation of pacemaker cells increases [__] permeability, which makes threshold potential easier to achieve, [_________] heart rate
K+, decreasing
Parasympathetic stimulation of pacemaker cells increases [__] permeability, making the resting potential of the cell more negative, [________] heart rate
Ca2+ channels and phospholambin
Sympathetic stimulation of β-1 receptors results in phosphorylation of [___ _______] and [__________], causing stronger and shorter contractions
M1, M2 and M3
Identify these receptor groups: (Neural and gastric), (Cardiac and presynaptic) and (Glands and smooth muscle)