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Level 61

CVRR 61 Embryology of the Urinary Sy


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Mesoderm
Concerning the origin of the metanephric kidney: the excretory system develops from [_______]
Uteric bud
Concerning the origin of the metanephric kidney: the collecting system develops from the [________]
Urinary and genital
Embryologically, the urogenital system gives rise to both the [______] and [_______] systems
Metanephros
Embryologically, a term used to describe the permanent or 'true' kidney
5, 9
Embryologically, the metanephros appears on the [_]th week, and begins to function by the [_]th
Transport fluid
In the fetus, the metanephros does not carry out 'kidney' functions, but does [_________]
Pelvic
Initially, the kidneys are located in the [____] region
9
Embryologically, the kidneys ascend to their adult position by week [_]
Retroperitoneal
The kidneys are always [__________], meaning behind the peritoneal lining - even though they project into the abdominal cavity
Common iliac arteries, abdominal aorta
Embryologically, before their ascent, the kidneys are vascularised by branches from the [________]. After ascension, they are vascularised by branches from the [_____]
Supernumerary renal arteries
Embryologically, if the original vascular supply to the kidneys does not degenerate after their ascent, [_____________] may develop
Allantois
Embryologically, a vessel whose function is to collect liquid waste from the embryo, as well as to exchange gases used by the embryo
Amnioblasts
Amniotic fluid is produced by [_______] lining the amniotic cavity
Amniotic fluid
During development, the embryo and fetus will swallow [________] - part of this is then excreted via the kidneys
Urine
Amniotic fluid is NOT [_____]
Polyhydramnios
Concerning amniotic fluid circulation, if there is something wrong with the swallowing process, then [________] may occur
Oligohydramnios
Concerning amniotic fluid circulation, if there is something wrong with fluid excretion, then [________] may occur
Amniotic fluid index
A score (expressed in cm) given to the amount of amniotic fluid seen on pregnant uterus and calculated by an ultrasound
>25cm total depth
The AFI rating at which polyhydramnios is diagnosed
<5cm total depth
The AFI rating at which oligohydramnios is diagnosed
8%
About [_]% of women have oligohydramnios
2%
About [_]% of women have polyhydramnios
Horseshoe kidney
A condition where during embryological development, the inferior poles of the kidneys fuse and their ascent is prevented
1 in 500
The frequency of horseshoe kidneys per 500 live births
Ectopic kidney
A condition where one or both kidneys may be in an abnormal position
Polycystic kidney disease
A condition characterised by the presence of multiple kidney cysts, typically in both kidneys
Premature labour
A possible complication of polyhydramnios
Fetal compression
A possible complication of oligohydramnios