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CVRR 69 Regulation of Plasma Osmolarity

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Plasma and interstitial fluid
The two components making up extracellular fluid
Drinking and eating
How the body gains water
Lungs, skin, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys
How the body expels water
Insensible water loss
Water loss which can't be measured
280 - 300
The typical plasma osmolality of the body, in mOsm/Kg of H20
Posterior pituitary gland
ADH is secreted from the [_________]
Normal value of urine passed per day (L)
0.5 - 18
Possible range of urine passed per day (L)
300 - 500
Normal range for urine osmolality, in mOsm/kg
50 - 1200
Possible range for urine osmolality, in mOsm/kg
Antidiuretic hormone
The main regulatory hormone in the process of maintaining constant plasma osmolality
Apical membrane
Membrane of the cell in contact with tubule lumen
Basolateral membrane
Membrane of the cell in contact with the interstitial fluid
Concentrates urine
The purpose of the cortico-medullary osmotic gradient
The cortico-medullary osmotic gradient created by juxtamedullary nephrons is due to the [________] mechanism of the Loop of Henle
Loop of Henle
The portion of the nephron tubule responsible for creating the countercurrent mechanism
Juxtamedullary nephron
The type of nephron which creates the cortico-medullary osmotic gradient
ADH is produced in the [________]
Hypothalamic osmoreceptors
Receptors that detect changes in osmolality of plasma
True or False: Rising plasma [ADH] has no effect on total solute excretion
Negative Feedback Control of Plasma Osmolality
High plasma osmolality detected --> ADH released --> increased aquaporins in LDT and CD --> kidney conserves water --> plasma osmolality decreased
Concerning the nephron, the descending limb is permeable to [________] ONLY
Concerning the nephron, the ascending limb is permeable to [________] ONLY
Tonicity of fluid delivered to the late distal tubule
True or False: When water needs to be conserved, urea excretion is increased
Diabetes insipidus
A condition characterised by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine
Insufficient ADH production or failure to respond to ADH
Diabetes insipidus can be caused by these two things
Diabetes insipidus or excess alcohol
Lack of ADH can be due to these two things
Synthetic ADH
A hormone therapy treatment for diabetes insipidus
High ceiling (loop) and thiazide
Two commonly used diuretics
Loop diuretic
The diuretic that blocks the triple symporter in TAL of LoH
Thiazide diuretic
The diuretic that blocks the Na-Cl symporter in early DT