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CVRR 72 Potassium Balance


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98%
K+ is [__]% intracellular
150 mM
K+ concentration ([K+]) is typically high inside cells, at [___] mM
3.5 - 5.0 mM
K+ concentration ([K+]) is typically low outside cells, with a range from [___] mM to [___] mM
Na-K ATPase
The ICF-ECF gradient of K+ is maintained by this ion pump
3.5 mM
Hypokalaemia is a condition where [K+] is < [____] mM
5.0 mM
Hyperkalaemia is a condition where [K+] is > [____] mM
Hyperpolarises
Hypokalaemia [_________] the membrane potential
Depolarises
Hyperkalaemia [_________] the membrane potential
Decreases
Hypokalaemia [_______] the excitability of cells
Increases
Hyperkalaemia [_______] the excitability of cells
Movement of K+ in and out of cells
The mechanism of internal regulation of [K+]
Excretion of K+
The mechanism of external regulation of [K+]
Rapidly
Internal regulation of [K+] takes place [_____]
Slowly
External regulation of [K+] takes place [_____]
Insulin, adrenaline / epinephrine and aldosterone
Three hormones that stimulate Na-K ATPase to pump K+ into cells
B2
Stimulation of this adrenergic receptor type by adrenaline moves K+ into cells
Addison's disease
Hyperkalaemia can be induced by low aldosterone levels (e.g. from [________] disease
Increased
Metabolic acidosis leads to [_______] [K+] ECF
Decreased
Metabolic alkalosis leads to [_______] [K+] ECF
Increased
Increased plasma osmolarity leads to [_______] [K+] ECF
Decreased
Decreased plasma osmolarity leads to [________] [K+] ECF
720 mM
The typical filtered load of K+ each day by the kidneys
86%
The percentage of filtered K+ reabsorbed by the kidneys
67%
The percentage of filtered K+ reabsorbed by the proximal tubule
20%
The percentage of filtered K+ reabsorbed by the loop of Henle
Plasma K+ and aldosterone
Two key factors affecting SECRETION of filtered K+ back into the body
Increases
As tubular fluid flow rate increases, K+ excretion [_______]
Increases
As ADH levels increase, K+ excretion [_______]
Decreases
As blood pH increases, K+ excretion [_______]