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CVRR 74 Acid:Base Balances


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7.4
The optimal pH of the body
Lower
Venous blood has a [lower/higher] pH than arterial blood
6.8 - 7.8
The pH range compatible with life, from lowest to highest
Alkalosis
Arterial pH > 7.4 = [________]
Acidosis
Arterial pH < 7.4 = [________]
Respiratory
A type of acid-base disorder caused by CO2 handling
Metabolic
A type of acid-base disorder caused by plasma bicarbonate levels
Kidneys
The organ(s) compensating respiratory acid-base disorders
Lungs and kidneys
The organ(s) compensating metabolic acid-base disorders
Volatile and non-volatile
The two types of acid generated by metabolism
Carbonic acid
Regarding acid-base balances, volatile acid is better known as this
Urine
Non-volatile acids can only be excreted in [_____]
Lactic acid
An example non-volatile acid
Acidosis
Loss of bicarbonate via faeces results in [acidosis/alkalosis]
Buffers
The system of pH compensation that takes place in seconds
Respiratory
The system of pH compensation that takes place in minutes
Renal
The system of pH compensation that takes place in hours/days
Acid
The meaning of HA in the acid-base Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
Base
The meaning of A- in the acid-base Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
Bicarbonate
H+ in the body is buffered by this ion
HCO3-
The chemical forumula for bicarbonate ions
Kidneys
The organ responsible for controlling bicarbonate ion levels
Respiratory acidosis
Acid-base disorder scenario: poor lung function
Respiratory alkalosis
Acid-base disorder scenario: hyperventilating
Metabolic alkalosis
Acid-base disorder scenario: prolonged vomiting
Metabolic acidosis
Acid-base disorder scenario: prolonged diarrhoea
Metabolic acidosis
Acid-base disorder scenario: severe shock
More and more
Kidneys compensate respiratory acidosis by excreting [more/less] H+ and generating [more/less] bicarbonate ions
Less and less
Kidneys compensate respiratory alkalosis by excreting [more/less] H+ and generating [more/less] bicarbonate ions
Anion gap
The difference in the measured cations and the measured anions in serum, plasma, or urine
Cations
Positive ions
Anions
Negative ions
Na+
The principal plasma cation used for calculating the anion gap
Cl- and HCO3-
The principal plasma anions used for calculating the anion gap
15mmol/L
A normal anion gap (mmol/L)
Uraemia
A term used to describe the illness accompanying kidney failure, in particular the associated nitrogenous waste products
Ketoacidosis, ingestion, lactic acid and uraemia
Possible causes of a high anion gap
100%
The percentage of filtered bicarbonate (HCO3-) that is reabsorbed by the kidneys
Proximal convoluted tubule
The location within the nephron where 80% of filtered bicarbonate (HCO3-) is reabsorbed
4.5
The maximum urine acidity (minimum pH) that can be achieved when excreting H+
Phosphate and ammonia
Two non HCO3- buffers that H+ can be buffered with
5.3 kPa
The typical amount of PaCO2 in the body (kPa)
23-25 mM
The normal range of HCO3- in the body (mM)
Chronic
If a compensatory response is complete, then an acid-base disorder is [acute/chronic]
Acute
If a compensatory response is not complete, then an acid-base disorder is [acute/chronic]