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Level 93

NME 4 The Digestion of Fats, Protein and Carbohydr


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Glycosidic bonds
Monosaccharides join to each other via [_______]
Lactose
Glucose + galactose = [_______]
Sucrose
Glucose + fructose = [_______]
Maltose
Glucose + glucose = [_______]
Catabolism
Reactions that break down substances
Anabolism
Reactions that synthesise substances
1 - 4
Cellulose only has beta [__-__] linkages
Starch
Amylose + amylopectin = [_______]
Branched
Glycogen is less [_______] than starch
Disaccharides
Stepwise degradation of carbohydrates: Polysacchardies --> Oligosaccharides --> [_______] --> Monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
Ultimately, carbohydrates are degraded to [________]
Glycoside hydrolases
Group of enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds to release smaller sugars
Alpha amylase
An enzyme in saliva which breaks down random α1-4 glycosidic linkages
Isomaltase
An enzyme which cleaves alpha 1-6 bonds that amylase cannot
Maltase
Enzyme that breaks down maltose
Sucrase
Enzyme that breaks down Sucrose
Lactase
Enzyme that breaks down Lactose
Monosaccharides
In carbohydrate metabolism, it is the [________] that are ultimately taken up by the intestinal cells of the epithelia
Duodenum and upper jejunum
The area in the body where monosaccharides are absorbed
Gastric lipase
An enzyme produced by the stomach to digest triglycerides
Stomach
Fat digestion begins in the [_______]
Bile
A substance released into the duodenum to aid fat absorption
Triacylglycerol
An ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids, abbreviated to TAG
Lipolysis
The process whereby triacylglycerides (TAGs) are broken down
Fatty acids and monoacylglycerol
Lipase(s) break down TAGs into three [______] plus one [_______]
Bile salts
It is essential that fatty acids (FA) be emulsified by [______] for optimal activity of lipase
Chylomicron
In the entrocytes the reassembled TAGs are packaged into [_______] - a mobile vesicle
Micelles
Chylomicrons can also be referred to as [______]
Cholesterol
The mixed micelles contain fatty acids, [_______], fat soluble vitamins and bile salts
Enterocytes
Intestinal absorptive cells
Hydrophilic exterior
The micelles can be absorbed by the enterocytes (brush border) because of their [_______]
Stomach, pancreas and small intestine
The areas in the body where proteolytic enzymes are produced
Denaturing and proteolytic
Hydrochloric acid aids protein digestion by [_______] the proteins, readying them for [_______] enzymes
Pepsin
A proteolytic enzyme produced by Chief cells in the stomach
Pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid
Pepsin is released as a proenzyme called [_______] and is activated by cleavage catalysed by [_______]
Trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and carboxypeptidase
Digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas
Enterocytes
Amino acids, di & tri-peptides are all absorbed by [_______]
Amino acids
When in the cytosol of the enterocytes proteins digest into [_______]
D glucose
The isomer of sugar used by humans
Dextrose
D glucose is sometimes referred to as [_______]
HCOH
D glucose begins with [_____]
HOCH
L glucose begins with [_____]
Alpha
Glycogen is made of [alpha/beta] glucose
Alpha
Starch is made of [alpha/beta] glucose
Beta
Cellulose is made of [alpha/beta] glucose
Pancreatic alpha amylase
An enzyme produced by the pancreas which digests oligo- and polysaccharides to disaccharides
Phospholipase
The enzyme that breaks down phospholipids
Lysophospholipid
When phospholipase removes a fatty acid from a phospholipid, the phospholipid becomes a [______]
Lysophospholipidase
The enzyme that removes the last fatty acid group on a lysophospholipid
Monosaccharides
Degradation product of carbohydrate
Fatty acids
Degradation product of lipids
Amino acids
Degradation product of proteins