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NME 7 Embryology of the GI Tract (I)


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Stomodeum
Fetal structure that will become the mouth
Proctodeum
Fetal structure that will become the anal rectum
Coelom
Fetal structure that will become the peritoneal cavity
Dorsal mesentery and ventral mesentery
Fetal structures that suspend the gut tube in the coelom (after the yolk sac has become detached)
Occluded
A term referring to where part of the body becomes closed off (not atresia)
Recanalises
A term referring to where a closed off part of the body re-opens
6
Endoderm cells proliferate rapidly and the gut lumen is occluded during the [_]th week after fertilisation
Late embryonic/early fetal period
Period where gut recanalises
Celiac trunk
The foregut is made up of organs vascularised by the [______]
Superior mesenteric artery
The midgut is made up of organs vascularised by the [______]
Inferior mesenteric artery
The hindgut is made up of organs vascularised by the [______]
Celiac trunk
The stomach, spleen, liver, pancreas and first half of the duodenum are supplied by this artery
Superior mesenteric artery
The second half of the duodenum, small intestine and first half of the large intestine are supplied by this artery
Inferior mesenteric artery
The second half of the large intestine and the rectum are supplied by this artery
Ascending and descending colon
Only parts of the colon which become fused to the posterior abdominal wall, becoming retroperitoneal
10
The ascending and descending colon fuse to the posterior abdominal wall (becoming retroperitoneal) at the [__]th week of development
Congenital pyloric stenosis
A congenital condition caused by hypertrophy of the mainly circular muscle layer in the pyloric region
Distended stomach, olive mass and non bile-stained projectile vomiting
Signs and symptoms of congenital pyloric stenosis
2
In pyloric stenosis, vomiting usually begins [_] weeks after birth
1 : 4
Female to male ratio for congenital pyloric stenosis
1 in 200
Incidence of congenital pyloric stenosis per 200 live births
Omphalocoele
A congenital herniation of the intestines, covered in membrane
Gastroschisis
A congenital herniation of the intestines, not covered in membrane
Omphalocoele
Regarding omphalocoele and gastroschisis, only [_______] presents with a skin cover
Congenital umbilical hernia
A congenital condition where the abdominal wall doesn't close the umbilical ring and a hernia protrudes through it
Intussusception
A condition where part of the intestine has invaginated into another part, similar to the way parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another
Distention, pain, vomiting and passing red currant jelly stools
The signs and symptoms of intussusception
Intussusception
The condition which is the most common bowel obstruction in infants
Malrotation of the midgut
A condition comprising volvus (twisting) of the intestines - impeding intestinal contents and compromising blood supply
Intestinal stenosis
A condition where the intestinal lumen is narrowed with incomplete recanalisation
Intestinal atresia
A condition where the intestinal lumen is completely closed off as a result of failed recanalisation
Milk coloured
Regarding GI embryology, if an atresia is ABOVE the gall bladder, vomit is [________]
Tinged green
Regarding GI embryology, if an atresia is BELOW the gall bladder, vomit is [________]
Meckel's diverticulum
A condition with outpocketing of the terminal ilium (because the vitelline duct did not completely obliterate)
Anal atresia
A condition where the anus is missing or has fistulated (redirected) to other internal structures
Bladder and vagina
Areas of the body the anus may fistulate to