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The transport of dissolved substances into cells
Absorption
The breakdown of absorbed substances
Digestion
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
Respiration
The removal of soluble waste materials
Excretion
The removal of non-soluble waste materials
Egestion
The release of biosynthesized substances for use by other cells
Secretion
Maintaining the status quo in a cell
Homeostasis
Producing more cells
Reproduction
The study of cells
Cytology
A rigid substance on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
Cell wall
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Middle lamella
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
Plasma membrane
A jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Cytoplasm
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
Ions
The motion of the cytoplasm which results in a coordinated movement of the cell's organelles
Cytoplasmic streaming
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
Mitochondria
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions which break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Lysosome
Non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Ribosomes
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes which perform several tasks within a cell
Endoplasmic reticulum
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
Rough ER
ER that has no ribosomes
Smooth ER
The organelles in which proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Golgi bodies
Organelles that store starches or oils
Leucoplasts
Organelles that contain pigments and used in photosynthesis
Chromoplasts
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution which contains a high concentration of solutes
Central vacuole
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
Waste vacuoles
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Phagocytosis
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs
Phagocytic vacuole
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
Pagocytic vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
Secretion vesicle
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a rope-like structure
Microtubes
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Nuclear membrane
Clusters of DNA and proteins in the nucleus
Chromatin
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule which contains a phosphate group
Phospholipid
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
Passive transport
Movement of molecules trough the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a chemical process
Active transport
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
Isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solute is greater than that of the cell which resides in the solution
Hypertonic solution
A collapse of the cell's cytoplasm due to lack of water
Plasmolysis
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
Cytolysis
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell which resides in the solution
Hypotonic solution
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going
Activation energy
The RNA that performs transcription
Messenger RNA
The process in which mRNA produces a negative of a strand of DNA
Transcription
The process by which proteins are formed in the ribosome according to the negative in mRNA
Translation
A sequence of three nucleotides on mRNA that refers to a specific type of amino acid
Codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of tRNA
Anticodon