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Level 12

Renal


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Some causes of chronic renal failure
Glomerulonephritis; Lupus; Analgesics; Diabetes mellitus; Systemic vascular disease; Hypertension; Obstruction; Polycystic kidney disease
Some causes of a unilateral palpable kidney
Wilm's tumour; Hydronephrosis; Acute renal vein thrombosis, Acute pyelonephritis; Renal cell carcinoma; Polycystic kidneys, Pyonephrosis
Common causes of an anion gap metabolic acidosis
Methanol ingestion; Uraemia; Diabetic, starvation or alcoholic ketoacidosis; Paraldehyde poisoning; Iron, Isoniazid; Lactic acidosis; Ethanol, Ethylene glycol; Salicylate
11 causes of hypercalcaemia
Sarcoidosis; HyperPTH, Hyperthyroidism; Alkali-milk syn; Mets, Myeloma; Paget's dz; Osteogenesis imperfecta; Other (ie Addison's dz); D vit excess; Immobility; Road accidents (trauma); Thiazide diuret
Clinical features favouring a diagnosis of chronic renal failure over acute renal failure
Bone disease (renal osteodystrophy); Anaemia; Neuropathy (peripheral); Small sized kidney
Some causes of a normal anion gap acidosis
Hyperalimentation, Hyperventilation; Acetazolamide; Renal tubular acidosis; Diarrhoea; Ureteral diversion; Pancreatic fistula
Primary indications for haemodialysis
Hyperkalaemia (refractory); Acidosis (refractory); Volume overload; Elevated BUN (> 36 mM); Oedema (pulmonary); Pericarditis; Encephalopathy