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Cardiology (III)


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Characteristics of the JVP
Multi-waveform; Occludable; Positional variation; Hepato-jugular reflex; Above filling; Impalpable; Respiratory changes
Some causes of AF
Alcohol; Rheumatic heart dz; IHD; Thyrotoxicosis; HTN; Mitral stenosis, MI; ASD, Atrial myxoma; Toxins; Idiopathic, Infective endocarditis; Cardiomyopathy, Constrictive pericarditis
Some causes of SVT
Sinus tachycardia; Nodal tachycardia (i.e. re-entrant vs. WPW); AF; Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
General approach to chronic heart failure
Diuretics; ACE inhibitors; Vasodilators; Inotropes (i.e. digoxin); beta-blockers (i.e. carvedilol, an alpha+beta adrenergic antagonist)
6 complications of mitral stenosis
Pulmonary HTN; AF; Systemic embolisation; Tricuspid regurg; Right heart failure; Infective endocarditis
Some complications of MI
Arrythmias, Aneurysm; Bradycardia, BP low; Cardiac failure, Cardiac tamponade; Dressler's syndrome, Death; Embolism of a mural thrombus