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Cardiology (IV)


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Contraindications to Beta-Blockers
Acute asthma exacerbation; Block (heart); Cardiac failure (now controversial); Diabetes Mellitus (hypoglycaemic shock); Extremities (peripheral vascular disease)
Side effects of ACE inhibitors
Cough (via bradykinin); Anaphylaxis; Palpitations; Taste (loss of); Orthostatic hypotension; Potassium elevation; Renal impairment; Impotence; Leukocytosis
5 causes of a 3rd heart sound
Failure; Incompetence (mitral/tricuspid); Pregnancy; Pulmonary Embolus; Youth
4 causes of a 4th heart sound
Hypertension, Heart block; Ischaemic heart disease; Tamponade; Stenosis (aortic/pulmonary)
Causes of pericarditis
Dressler's syndrome; Rheumatic fever; Arthritis (rheumatoid); Uraemia; MI; SLE; Trauma; Idiopathic; Coxsackie B virus; XR (ionising radiation)
Symptoms and prognosis of aortic stenosis
Syncope: 1 year prognosis; Angina: 2 year prognosis; Dyspnoea: 6 month prognosis
Side effects of digoxin
GIT: nausea, vomiting, abdo pain, ulceration; Eyes: blurring, haloes, xanthopsia; CNS: depression, confusion, delirium, hallucinations; Cardiac: arrythmias; K+: hypokalaemia