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Respiratory (I)


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Some causes of lung abscesses
Septic emboli; Obstruction (ie foreign body, tumour); Aspiration (ie alcohol, bulbar palsy, achalasia); Pulmonary infarct, Pneumonia
Some causes of a middle mediastinal mass
Haematoma; Aneurysm; Bronchogenic cyst; Inflammation (ie sarcoid, histoplasmosis, coccidiomycoses, tuberculosis); Tumours (lung, lymphoma, leukaemia, leiomyoma, lymph node hyperplasia)
6 causes of bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
Primary tuberculosis; Histoplasmosis; Lymphoma; Metastases; Pneumoconiosis; Sarcoidosis
Common causes of a transudative pleural effusion
Carditis, Cardiac failure; Hypothyroidism; Albuminaemia (hypo); Renal failure; Meigs' syndrome, Malabsorption
Common histological subtypes of lung malignancy
Small cell (oat cell); Epidermoid/squamous; Adenocarcinoma; Large cell
Some aggravating factors of asthma
Drugs (ie beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors); Allergens; Stress, Sports, Smoking; Temperature (cold); Heart burn (reflux); Microbes (ie respiratory tract infections); Anxiety
Some causes of an exudative pleural effusion
Pneumonia; Abscess; Neoplasm; Tuberculosis; Sarcoidosis; Scleroderma; Infarction; Rheumatoid arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus