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capability
the natural ability, skill, or power that makes a machine, person, or organization able to do sth, especially sth difficult
capable
1) having the qualities or ability needed to do sth 2) able to do things well
capacity
the amount of space a container, room etc has to hold things or people sb's ability to do sth
category
a group of people or things that are all of the same type
cease
(formal) to stop doing sth or stop happening
challenge
(law) a statement made before the start of a court case that a juror is not acceptable
challenge
a demand from sb such as a guard to stop and give proof of who you are, and an explanation of what you are doing
channel
to control and direct sth such as money or energy towards a particular purpose (= direct)
challenge
to refuse to accept that sth is right, fair, or legal
chapter
1) one of the parts into which a book is divided 2) a particular period or event in sb's life or in history
challenging
difficult in an interesting or enjoyable way
chart
information that is clearly arranged in the form of a simple picture, set of figures, graph etc, or a piece of paper with this information on it (= diagram)
channel
a system or method that you use to send or obtain information, goods, permission etc
chart
1) to record information about a situation or set of events over a period of time, in order to see how it changes or develops 2) to make a plan of what should be done to achieve a particular result
chemical
a substance used in chemistry or produced by a chemical process (eg. toxic *)
compilation
a book, list, record etc which consists of different pieces of information, songs etc
chemical
relating to substances, the study of substances, or processes involving changes in substances
circumstance
the conditions that affect a situation, action, event etc
citation
a formal statement or piece of writing publicly praising someone's actions or achievements
cite
(formal) to mention sth as an example, especially one that supports, proves, or explains an idea or situation (used in Law)
civil
relating to the people who live in a country
clarification
(formal) the act of making sth clearer or easier to understand, or an explanation that makes sth clearer
clarify
(formal) to make sth clearer or easier to understand
clarity
the * of a piece of writing, law, argument etc is its quality of being expressed clearly
classic
1) having all the features that are typical or expected of a particular thing or situation 2) admired by many people, and having a value that has continued for a long time
classic
a book, play, or film that is important and has been admired for a long time
classical
1) belonging to a traditional style or set of ideas 2) relating to music that is considered to be important and serious and that has a value that continues for a long time
clause
a part of a written law or legal document covering a particular subject of the whole law or document
code
to put a set of numbers, letters, or symbols on sth to show what it is or give information about it
coded
* information uses a system of words, letters or symbols instead of ordinary writing so that it can only be understood by sb else who knows the system
coding
a system of marking sth with letters, symbols etc so that facts about it can be understood by sb who knows the system
coherence
when sth such as a piece of writing is easy to understand because its parts are connected in a clear and reasonable way
coherent
If a piece of writing, set of ideas etc is *, it is easy to understand because it is clear and reasonable
coincide
to happen at the same time as sth else, especially by chance
coincident
(formal) existing or happening at the same place or time
coincidental
happening completely by chance without being planned
collapse
1) If a building, wall etc *s, it falls down suddenly, usually because it is weak or damaged 2) to suddenly fall down or become unconscious because you are ill or weak
collapse
a sudden failure in the way sth works, so that it cannot continue
colleague
sb you work with, used especially by professional people
commence
(formal) to begin or to start sth
commencement
1) [formal] the beginning of sth 2) [American] a ceremony at which university, college, or high school students receive their diplomas (graduation)
comment
criticism or discussion of sth sb has said or done
no comment
used by people in public life when they do not want to answer questions
comment
(remark) to express an opinion about sb or sth
commentary
a spoken description of an event, given while the event is happening, especially on the television or radio
commentator
sb who knows a lot about a particular subject, and who writes about it or discusses it on the television or radio
commission
to formally ask sb to write an official report, produce a work of art for you etc
communicable
(formal) [= infectious] a * disease can be passed on to other people
communicate
to exchange information or conversation with other people, using words, signs, writing etc
communicative
able to talk easily to other people
compatibility
(technical) the ability of one piece of computer equipment to be used with another one, especially when they are made by different companies
compatible
If two pieces of computer equipment are *, they can be used together, especially when they are made by different companies
compensate
to replace or balance the effect of sth bad
compensation
money paid to sb because they have suffered injury or loss, or because sth they own has been damaged
compensatory
(formal) * payments are paid to sb who has been harmed or hurt in some way
compile
to make a book, list, record etc, using different pieces of information, music etc
complement
sb or sth that emphasizes the good qualities of another person or thing
complement
to make a good combination with sb or sth else
complementary
* things go well together, although they are usually different
complex
(= complicated; ≠ simple) consisting of many different parts and often difficult to understand
complex
a group of buildings, or a large building with many parts, used for a particular purpose
complexity
1) the state of being complicated 2) one of the many details or features of sth that make it hard to understand or deal with
component
(constituent) one of several parts that together make up a whole machine, system etc
component
The * parts of sth are the parts that it consists of
compound
(technical) a substance containing atoms from two or more elements
compound
to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems
compound
(American English) to pay interest that is calculated on both the sum of money and the interest
comprehensive
(thorough) including all the necessary facts, details, or problems that need to be dealt with
comprise
(formal) to consist of particular parts, groups etc
computation
(formal) the process of calculating or the result of calculating
compute
to calculate a result, answer, sum etc
computer
an electronic machine that stores information and uses programs to help you find, organize, or change the information
computing
the use of computers as a job, in a business etc
conceivable
able to be believed or imagined (≠ inconceivable)
conceive
(formal) to imagine a particular situation or to think about sth in a particular way
concentrate
to be present in large numbers or amounts sw, or to cause people or things to be present in large numbers or amounts sw
concentration
1) a large amount of sth in a particular place or among particular people 2) (technical) the amount of a substance contained in a liquid
concept
an idea of how sth is, or how sth should be done
conception
an idea about what sth is like, or a general understanding of sth
conceptual
(formal) dealing with ideas, or based on them
conclude
(formal) to complete sth you have been doing, especially for a long time
concluding
* remark/section/stage etc = the last remark etc in an event or piece of writing
conclusion
(formal) the end or final part of sth (= end)
conclusive
showing that sth is definitely true (= convincing; decisive)
concurrent
1) existing or happening at the same time 2) (formal) in agreement
conduct
to carry out a particular activity or process, especially in order to get information or prove facts
conduct
(formal) the way sb behaves, especially in public, in their job etc (= behaviour)
confer
(formal) to discuss sth with other people, so that everyone can express their opinions and decide on sth
conference
a large formal meeting where a lot of people discuss important matters such as business, politics, or science, especially for several days
confine
to keep sb or sth within the limits of a particular activity or subject (= restrict)
confined
a * space or area is one that is very small
confirm
to tell sb that a possible arrangement, date, or situation is now definite or official
confirmation
a statement, document etc that says that sth is definitely true
conflict
1) a state of disagreement or argument between people, groups, countries etc 2) a situation in which you have to choose between two or more opposite needs, influences etc
conflict
if two ideas, beliefs, opinions etc *, they cannot exist together or both be true
conform
1) to behave in the way that most other people in your group or society behave 2) to obey a law, rule etc
conformation
(technical) the shape of sth or the way in which it is formed
conformist
thinking and behaving like everyone else, because you do not want to be different, or forcing people to do this - often used to show disapproval
conformity
behaviour that obeys the accepted rules of society or a group, and is the same as that of most other people
consensus
an opinion that everyone in a group agrees with or accepts
consent
1) permission to do sth 2) agreement about sth
consent
to give your permission for sth or agree to do sth
consequence
sth that happens as a result of a particular action or set of conditions
consequent
(formal) happening as a result of a particular event or situation
consequently
as a result
considerable
fairly large, especially large enough to have an effect or be important
considerably
much or a lot
consist in (sth)
to be based on or depend on sth
consist of
to be formed from two or more things or people
consistency
the quality of always being the same, doing things in the same way, having the same standards etc - used to show approval (≠ inconsistency)
consistent
always behaving in the same way or having the same attitudes, standards etc - usually used to show approval (≠ inconsistent)
constancy
(formal) the quality of staying the same even though other things change
constant
1) (technical) a number or quantity that never changes 2) (formal) sth that stays the same even though other things change
constantly
all the time, or very often
constituency
(BE) an area of a country that elects a representative to a parliament
constituent
1) sb who votes in a particular area 2) one of the substances or things that combine to form sth
constituent
(formal) being one of the parts of sth
constitute
to be considered to be sth
constitution
a set of basic laws and principles that a country or organization is governed by
constitutional
officially allowed or limited by the system of rules of a country or organization
constrain
1) to stop sb from doing what they want to do 2) to limit sth
be constrained
to feel that you must do sth
constraint
sth that limits your freedom to do what you want (= restriction)
construct
to build sth such as a house, bridge, road etc
construct
(formal) 1) an idea formed by combining several pieces of information or knowledge 2) sth that is built or made
construction
the process of building things such as houses, bridges, roads etc
constructive
useful and helpful, or likely to produce good results
consult
to ask for information or advice from sb because it is their job to know sth
consultancy
a company that gives advice on a particular subject
consultant
sb whose job is to give advice on a particular subject
consultation
a discussion in which people who are affected by or involved in sth can give their opinions
consultative
providing advice and suggesting solutions to problems
consume
1) to use time, energy, goods etc 2) (formal) to eat or drink sth
consumer
sb who buys and uses products and services
consumption
1) the amount of energy, oil, electricity etc that is used 2) (formal) the act of eating or drinking
contact
1) communication with a person, organization, country etc 2) when two people or things touch each other
contact
to write to or telephone someone
contact
* explosives or chemicals become active when they touch sth
contemporary
belonging to the present time (= modern)
contemporary
sb who lived or was in a particular place at the same time as sb else
context
the situation, events, or information that are related to something and that help you to understand it
contextual
relating to a particular context
contextualize
(formal) to consider sth together with the situation, events, or information related to it, rather than alone
contract
an official agreement between two or more people, stating what each will do
contract
1) to become smaller or narrower [≠ expand] 2) (formal) to get an illness
contractor
a person or company that agrees to do work or provide goods for another company
contradict
to disagree with sth, especially by saying that the opposite is true
contradiction
a difference between two statements, beliefs, or ideas about something that means they cannot both be true
contradictory
two statements, beliefs etc that are * are different and therefore cannot both be true or correct
the contrary
(formal) the opposite of what has been said or suggested
contrary
* ideas, opinions, or actions are completely different and opposed to each other
contrast
a difference between people, ideas, situations, things etc that are being compared
contrast
sth that is very different from sth else
contrast
if two things *, the difference between them is very easy to see and is sometimes surprising
contrasting
two or more things that are * are different from each other, especially in a way that is interesting or attractive
contribute
to give money, help, ideas etc to something that a lot of other people are also involved in
contribution
something that you give or do in order to help something be successful
contributor
sb who gives money, help, ideas etc to sth that a lot of other people are also involved in
contributor
(formal) sb or sth that helps to cause sth to happen
controversial
causing a lot of disagreement, because many people have strong opinions about the subject being discussed
controversy
a serious argument about something that involves many people and continues for a long time
convene
if a group of people *, or sb *s them, they come together, especially for a formal meeting
convention
a large formal meeting for people who belong to the same profession or organization or who have the same interests
conventional
a * method, product, practice etc has been used for a long time and is considered the usual type
converse
(formal) opposite
conversely
used when one situation is the opposite of another
conversion
when you change sth from one form, purpose, or system to a different one
convert
1) to change sth into a different form of thing, or to change sth so that it can be used for a different purpose or in a different way 2) to change into a different form of thing, or change into sth t
convertible
an object that is * can be folded or arranged in a different way so that it can be used as sth else
convertible
(technical) able to be exchanged for the money of another country
convinced
feeling certain that sth is true
convincing
making you believe that sth is true or right
cooperate
1) to work with sb else to achieve sth that you both want 2) to do what sb wants you to do
cooperation
when you work with sb to achieve sth that you both want
cooperative
1) willing to cooperate [= helpful; ≠ uncooperative] 2) made, done, or operated by people working together
coordinate
to organize an activity so that the people involved in it work well together and achieve a good result
coordinate
(technical) one of a set of numbers which give the exact position of a point on a map, computer screen etc
coordinate
equal in importance or rank in a sentence
coordination
the way in which your muscles move together when you perform a movement
coordinator
sb who organizes the way people work together in a particular activity
core
1) the most important or central part of sth 2) a number of people who form a group which is very important to an organization
core
A * subject have to be studied at a school or college
core
* business or activities are the main business or activities of a company or organization
core
to remove the centre from a fruit
corporate
belonging to or relating to a corporation
corporation
a big company, or a group of companies acting together as a single organization
correspond
if two things or ideas *, the parts or information in one relate to the parts or information in the other
correspondence
the letters that sb sends and receives, especially official or business letters
corresponding
caused by or connected with something you have already mentioned
corresponding
having similar qualities or a similar size, position etc to something else [= equivalent]
couple
two people who are married or having a sexual or romantic relationship
couple
1) to join or fasten two things together 2) (formal) to have sex
create
to invent or design sth
creation
something that has been created
creativity
the ability to use your imagination to produce new ideas, make things etc
creator
someone who made or invented a particular thing
credit
an arrangement with a shop, bank etc that allows you to buy something and pay for it later
credit facilities
the opportunity to buy sth on credit
credit
to add money to a bank account (≠ debit)
creditor
a person, bank, or company that you owe money to (≠ debtor)
criterion
a standard that you use to judge something or make a decision about sth (plural criteria)
crucial
sth that is * is extremely important, because everything else depends on it
cultural
belonging or relating to a particular society and its way of life
culturally
in a way that is related to the ideas, beliefs, or customs of a society
culture
the beliefs, way of life, art, and customs that are shared and accepted by people in a particular society
currency
the system or type of money that a country uses
cycle
a number of related events that happen again and again in the same order
cycle
(AE) to go through a series of related events again and again, or to make something do this
cyclic (cyclical)
happening in cycles