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Project Time Management

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adding resources to critical path activities only
fast tracking
performing critical path activities in parallel
work performance information
information and data on status of project schedule activities being performed to accomplish project work (performed in direct and manage project execution processes)
define activities
identify & document planned work, identify deliverables at lowest WBS level, decompose work packages in to schedule activities
sequence activities
identify and document logical relationships, logically sequencing schedule activities, apply leads and lags to manage schedule
estimate activity resources
estimate type and quantify of resources needed to conduct and complete activity
estimate activity durations
process of approximating number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
control schedule
under monitoring and controlling process: comparing where we are to where the schedule baseline should be, and looking at variances
define activities
Inputs: scope baseline, EEF (PMIS), OPA (formal/informal policies), & lessons learned
scope baseline
consists of scope statement, WBS, WBS dictionary
define activities
tools & techniques: decomposition, rolling wave planning, templates, expert judgement
breaking down work into smaller components to visualize work that needs to be completed
rolling wave planning
form of progressive elaboration, near term work planned in detail, future planned at a higher level in the WBS
define activities
outputs: activity list, activity attributes, milestone list
activity list
scope of work description, all schedule activities required, ID
milestone list
list of major mandatory, contract and optional schedule events
sequence activities
inputs: activity list, activity attributes, milestone list, project scope statement (& produce scope description), OPA
sequence activities
tools & techniques: PDF, dependency determination, applying leads and lags, schedule network templates
precendence diagramming method
lead time
time that can be overlapped for the sequential activity to start
lag time
time needed between activities from when one activity ends to when one begins
network diagrams
shows interdependence of all tasks, workflow and is used to successfully plan, organize, monitor and control projects, used to crash or fast-track
arrow diagramming method
ADM; out of date
dummy activity
a path that indicates a dependency but has zero duration
finish to start
Task A must finish before Task B can start
finish to finish
Task A must finish before Task B can start
start to finish
least popular
finish to start
most popular
start to finish
Task A must finish before Task B can start
start to start
Task A must start before Task B can start
activity on node
sequence activities
outputs: project schedule network diagrams (summary narrative), project document updates (activity lists, activity attributes, risk register)
activity resource estimating
determine what resources will be used, how many and materials & equipment. Closely related to cost estimating process.
estimate activity resources
inputs: activity list, activity attributes, resource calendars, EEF, OPA
estimate activity resources
tools and techniques: expert judgement, alternatives analysis, published estimating data, bottom-up estimating, project management software
bottom-up estimating
decompose to the lowest level for accuracy
estimate activity resources
outputs: activity resource requirements, resource breakdown structure, project document updates (activity list, activity attributes, resource calendars)
resource breakdown structure
hierarchical structure for labor, materials, resources, supplies
activity attributes
contains successors and predecessors
activity duration estimating
uses schedule activity scope of work, required resource types, estimated resource quantities, resource calendars
estimate activity durations
requires estimating work effort, number of resources and work periods
estimate activity durations
inputs: activity list, activity attributes, resource requirements, resource calendars, scope statement, EEF, OPA
estimate activity duration
tools: expert judgement, analogous estimating, parametric estimating, three-point estimates, reserve analysis
expert judgement
person with historical information about activity duration
analogous estimating
quick way of estimating using actual duration of previous similar activity; not as accurate
parametric estimating
productivity X rate. amount of work multiplied by rate of productivity.
three-point estimating
weighted formula to incorporate most likely, pessimistic and optimistic durations
reserve analysis
usually a percentage of schedule or fixed number of work periods incorporated in to schedule because of risk
estimate activity duration
outputs: activity duration estimates (doesn't include lags, may include ranges), project document updates (activity attributes, assumptions)
project schedule development
an iterative process that determines start and end dates, continues throughout the project as plans change and can demand reviews
develop schedule
tools and techniques: schedule network analysis, critical path method, critical chain method, resource leveling, what-if, leads and lags, schedule compression, scheduling tool
schedule network analysis
technique that generates project schedule, analyzes for uncompleted schedule activities, determines early and late start and finish dates, determines if compression is necessary
critical path
path with longest duration, earliest the project can complete
critical path
least amount of float
near critical path
the next longest path
backward pass
Critical path method technique to calculate late start and finish dates; work backward from project end date
forward pass
method to find early start and early finish
backward pass
helps to determine the float
total float
amount of time an activity can be delayed before it delays project end date
free float
amount of time an activity can be delayed before it delays the successor activity
can also be called slack
schedule flexibility
measured by positive differences between early and late date on the network path
monte carlo analysis
mathematical technique to simulate different outcomes, figures duration probability of each activity
critical chain method
sequence in which scarce resources are processed, accounts for limited resources, incorporates buffers to reduce schedule risk, adds activity buffers for random risk
develop schedule
outputs: project schedule (milestone charts, bar charts, project schedule network diagrams), schedule baseline, schedule data, project document updates (activity resource requirements, activity attrib
resource leveling
optimize across resources
control schedule
determining status of project schedule, influencing factors that create schedule changes, determining schedule has changed and managing changes as they occur; part of perform integrated change control
control schedule
inputs: where did we plan to be? where are we currently?
control schedule
inputs: project management plan (baseline), project schedule (completed activities, started activities), WPI, OPA (schedule control policies, monitoring methods)
schedule compression
bring project activities back in line with the plan
control schedule
tools and techniques: performance reviews, variance analysis, pm software, resource leveling, what-if scenario analysis, leads and lags, compression, scheduling tool
certain activities can't be completed faster by adding resources; adding resources adds overhead that may negate time savings, project costs increase
fast tracking
high risk techqnique that increases probability of rework but faster schedule
process improvements
issues with this technique are that new processes are riskier