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people raised together know each other too well to be sexually attracted to each other
childhood familiarity theory
inbreeding is more likely to produce offspring with genetic disorders, due to harmful recessive genes being expressed
inbreeding theory
band organization, tribal organization, chiefdom, and state
name the four kinds of territorial groups
ceremony or ritual marking a change in status, ex sweet 16
define rites of passage and give an example
organized groups not based on kinship or territory, ex american anthropological association
define association and give an example
development, through influence of others, of behavioral patterns in children that conform to cultural expectations
define socialization
rewarding culturally desirable behaviors; punishing or ignoring undesirable behavior, ex grounding or beating children
define direct socialization and give an example
assigning tasks that force kids to behave in a culturally acceptable way, ex school
define indirect socialization and give an example
socially approved sexual and economic union, which encompasses reciprocal rights and obligations between spouses and their future children
define marriage
bride price
money or goods given by grooms kin to bride's kin
bride service
groom works for bride’s family before or after marriage
exchange of females
sister or female relative of groom is exchanged for bride
gift exchange
exchange of gifts of equal value by the two kin groups
large transfer of money or goods from bride’s family to either the bride, the groom, or the couple
indirect dowry
large transfer of payments from groom’s family to bride’s father who then passes most of the wealth to the bride
Arranged Marriages
Usually for formation of new economic and social ties between families (not for romantic love); tends to be associated with prestige
Choosing marriage partners from outside of your own kin group or community
Marrying within a particular group (usually a caste or class)
Man should marry brother’s widow
Woman should marry sister’s widower
Marriage involving one man and one woman at a time
Marriage to more than one spouse at the same time
One man married to more than one woman at the same time (but not everyone in that society can marry more than one woman because there are not enough women)
One woman is married to more than one man at the same time
Social and economic unit consisting minimally of one or more parents and their children
Extended Family
Most common form of family usually in sedentary, agricultural communities, prevents division of property, provides assistance to mothers with young children)
Nuclear Family
Married couple and their children (usually extended families shift to nuclear family patterns during periods of economic competition)
Patrilocal Residence
Married couple lives with or near groom’s parents
Matrilocal Residence
Married couples lives with or near bride’s parents
Biolocal Residence
Married couple can live with or near either the bride’s or groom’s parents
Avunculocal Residence
Married couple live with or near groom’s mother’s eldest brother
Neolocal Residence
Groom and bride live together, away from other relatives
Unilineal Descent
Person is afflicted with group of kin through descent links of one sex only
Patrilineal Descent
Affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes, related through men only
Matrilineal Descent
Affiliates an individual with kin of both sexes, related through women only
Set of kin whose members believe they are descended from a common ancestor through known links
Set of kin whose members believe they are descended from a common ancestor, but links to that ancestor are unspecified. Common ancestor may not even be known.
An animal name that designates a clan and serves as a means of group identification
Clans with patrilineal descent
Clans with matrilineal descent
Society divided into two unilineal descent groups, each called a moiety
Ambilineal Descent
Person is affiliated with group of kin through men or women (sometimes depends on occasion
Inuit system
cousins, aunts, and uncles have the same term; mother, father, brother, and sister have their own special terms
Omaha system
Relatives on the fater's side of the family have more descriptive terms by generation and sex, and relatives on the mother's side have more classificatory terms.
Crow system
Relatives on the mother's side of the family have more descriptive terms by generation and sex, and relatives on the father's side have more classificatory terms.
Iroquoi system
father and father’s brother have same term, mother and mother’s sister have same term; mother’s brother’s children and father’s sister’s children referred to the same term (but distinguished by sex); parallel cousins often referred to by same terms as brother and sister
Sudanese system
Different term used for each relative; none lumped together