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Large-scale production where each stage of production is carried out one after the other, continuously, on a production line.
Work is divided into separate tasks or jobs that allow workers to become skilled at one of them.
Division of labour
Breaking a job down into small, repetitive tasks that can be done quickly by workers or machines specialised in this one task.
A production approach that aims to use fewer resources by using them more efficiently.
Just-in-time manufacturing (JIT)
Ordering supplies so that they arrive just when they are needed and making goods only when ordered by customers.
Producing new designs as quickly as possible.
Economies of scale
The reasons why average costs of each item fall as a firm expands.
Diseconomies of scale
The reasons why production costs of each item rises as a firm expands.
A good or service that meets customers' expectations and is therefore 'fit for purpose'.
A system of agreeing and meeting quality standards at each stage of production.
Using the businesses to make all or part of a product or provide an aspect of customer care.
The expectations of customers expressed in terms of the minimum acceptable production or service standards.
Total Quality Management (TMQ)
An approach to quality that aims to involve all employees in the quality improvement process.