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cmd1 | cmd2
pipe stdout from cmd1 into stdin of cmd2
cmd < file
input to cmd from file
cmd > file
output of cmd to file
cmd >> file
append output of cmd to file
cmd > /dev/null
discard output of cmd
cmd 2> file
stderr of cmd to file
cmd 2>&1
stderr of cmd to same place as stdout
cmd | tee file
stdout of cmd to file AND stdout
cmd1 $(cmd2)
use output of cmd2 as part of cmd1
cat file1 file2
concatenate files to stdout