Level 8 Level 10
Level 9

Chapter 9


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أساس
basis, foundation
يؤثر في
to influence (present)
أسس
foundations
أثر في
to influence (past)
جماعة
group
جاز
to be permissible (past)
التأثير في
to influence (masdar)
يجوز
to be permissible (present)
حد
limit
الجماعات الإسلامية
Islamist groups
الجواز
to be permissible (masdar)
حدود
limits
محدود
limited
الحاضر
the present
محل
place, location, shop
محلي
local
حاجة
necessity
حالة
state, situation, case
تحول الى
to transform (past)
خصائص
special characteristics
يتحول الى
to transform (present)
التحول الى
to transform (masdar)
خاطب
to speak (past)
خطاب
speech
يخاطب
to speak to (present)
خالف
to violate a law (past)
المخالفة
to violate a law (masdar)
المخاطبة
to speak to (masdar)
يخالف
to violate a law (present)
الدارجة
colloquial (language)
ازداد
to increase (past)
تساءل
to ask oneself (past)
يزداد
to increase (present)
يتساءل
to ask oneself (present)
الازدياد
to increase (masdar)
التساؤل
to ask oneself (masdar)
مسألة
question, problem
سريع
fast
مسائل
questions, problems
سليم
sound, healthy
صحة
correctness, soundness
طعم
flavor
طعم ب
to infuse with, pollinate (past)
تطلب
to require (past)
يطعم ب
to infuse with, pollinate (present)
يتطلب
to require (present)
معتدل
Moderate
التطعيم
to infuse with, pollinate (masdar)
التطلب
to require (masdar)
عرب
to arabize (past)
عامة الناس
the masses, general public
يعرب
to arabize (present)
عمم
to generalize (past)
عملي
practical
التعريب
to arabize (masdar)
يعمم
to generalize (present)
غالى
to exaggerate (past)
من غير
without
التعميم
to generalize (masdar)
يغالي
to exaggerate (present)
المغالاة
to exaggerate (masdar)
فرق
difference
الفصاحة
eloquence, fluency
فروق
differences
فصيح
eloquent
تفصيل
detail
فصحاء
eloquent (plural adj.)
تفاصيل
details
افتقر الى
to lack, be in need of (past)
ميز
to distinguish something (past)
يفتقر الى
to lack, be in need of (present)
يميز
to distinguish something (present)
ميزة
positive distinguishing feature
الافتقار الى
to lack, be in need of (masdar)
التمييز
to distinguish something (masdar)
ناحية
side, direction
نحو
toward
نواح
sides, directions
منطق
logic
توجه إلى
to direct toward, head in (past)
وحد
alone
يتوجه إلى
to direct toward, head in (present)
صفة
characteristic
تواصل
to communicate (past)
التوجه إلى
to direct toward, head in (masdar)
يتواصل
to communicate (present)
وضع
situation, status
مؤقت
temporary
التواصل
to communicate (masdar)
أوضاع
situations, statuses
أدى الى
to lead to (past)
بسيط
simple
يؤدي الى
to lead to (present)
بسطاء
simple (plural adj.)
بال
mind, capacity of attention
بيئة
environment
بين
to clarify, make evident (past)
بيان
statement
يبين
to clarify, make evident (present)
جادل
to argue, debate (past)
التبيين
to clarify, make evident (masdar)
يجادل
to argue, debate (present)
جدل
debate (noun)
المجادلة
to argue, debate (masdar)
أجاب عن/على
to answer a question (past)
تجاوب مع
to respond positively to (past)
يجيب عن/على
to answer a question (present)
يتجاوب مع
to respond positively to (present)
أحس ب
I feel (past)
الإجابة عن/على
to answer a question (masdar)
التجاوب مع
to respond positively to (masdar)
يحس ب
to feel (present)
جواب
answer (noun)
محسوس
tangible
الإحساس ب
to feel (masdar)
أجوبة
answers (noun)
حصر في
to limit to (past)
يحصر في
to limit to (present)
يختصر
to abbreviate, abridge (present)
اختصر
to abbreviate, abridge (past)
الحصر في
to limit to (masdar)
الاختصار
to abbreviate, abridge (masdar)
دفع
to push, pay (past)
دافع
impetus, motive
يدفع
to push, pay (present)
دوافع
impetuses, motives
الدفع
to push, pay (masdar)
دل على
to indicate, point to (past)
دليل
evidence, proof
يدل على
to indicate, point to (present)
أدلة
evidence, proof (plural)
الدلالة على
to indicate, point to (masdar)
دون
to write down (past)
تركيب
structure, linguistic construction
يدون
to write down, record (present)
تراكيب
structures, linguistic constructions
سعى الى
to strive to, aim for (past)
التدوين
to write down, record (masdar)
يسعى الى
to strive to, aim for (present)
أسلوب
style
ضمن
to guarantee (past)
السعي الى
to strive to, aim for (masdar)
أساليب
styles
يضمن
to guarantee (present)
طائفة
sect, group in society
معجم
dictionary, lexicon
الضمان
to guarantee (masdar)
طوائف
sects, groups in society
معاجم
dictionaries, lexicons
معقد
complicated
تعمق في
to penetrate deeply into, become absorbed in (past)
عميق
deep
يتعمق في
to penetrate deeply into, become absorbed in (present)
سطحي
shallow
استفاد من
to benefit from (past)
التعمق في
to penetrate deeply into, become absorbed in (masdar)
يستفيد من
to benefit from (present)
الاستفادة من
to benefit from (masdar)
قرية
village
قطر
country
قرى
villages
أقطار
countries
قوي
strong
ضحيف
weak
لفظ
to utter, pronounce (past)
أقوياء
strong (plural adjective)
يلفظ
to utter, pronounce (present)
لهجة
dialect
اللفظ
to utter, pronounce (masdar)
أمسك ب
to grasp, take hold of (past)
تمسك ب
to hold fast, stick (past)
يمسك ب
to grasp, take hold of (present)
يتمسك ب
to hold fast, stick (present)
تماسك
to be cohesive, cohere (past)
الإمساك ب
to grasp, take hold of (masdar)
التمسك ب
to hold fast, stick (masdar)
يتماسك
to be cohesive, cohere (present)
ميدان
field, area
التماسك
to be cohesive, cohere (masdar)
ميادين
fields, areas
خطر على بال
it occurred to someone...
لا حاجة للبيان أن
there is no need to explain that...
من المعلوم أن
it is well-known that...
ولو
if only
من جهة... و من جهة اخرى
on one hand...and on the other hand
واسع النطاق
wide-ranging