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Evolutionary Theory of Attachment
determined by internal drives, prompted by care and attention.
Harlow (1958)
baby Rhesus monkeys, wire and comfort monkeys, comfort was chosen.
Konrad Lorenz
introduced the concept of Imprinting.
Imprinting
becoming attached to the first thing you see (animal babies)
Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
study of monotropism, 60 infants observed, mothers interviewed. 18 months only 13% monotropic relationship. Disproves Bowlby's Theory.
Monotropism
inbuilt bias to form an initial attachment with one person (often the mother)
Developmental Stages of Attachment (1969)
Bowlby's 4 stages of how children develop attachment bonds.
Bowlby's D.A Stage (0-2)
Pre-attachment (no preference shown to particular adults)
Bowlby's D.A Stage (2-7)
Attachment in the Making (preference shown - mother - by smiling and vocalizing)
Bowlby's D.A Stage (7-24)
Clear Cut attachment (protest of separation from particular people and wariness of strangers)
Bowlby's D.A Stage (24+)
reciprocal relationships (understanding that caregivers have different motives, organised behavior to mesh with caregivers)
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
comprises of 8 episodes from this the 3 Attachment types were created.
Secure Infant
some distress at separation, actively seeks interaction with caregiver, shows pleasure at reunion.
Ambivalent Infant
child shows both contact-seeking and resistant behavior.
Avoidant Infant
little protest during separation, when reunited the child does not approach or interact with caregiver.
Disorganised Infant
introduced by Main et al in 1985. No clear pattern shown across the episodes, bizzare reactions to reunion and separation shown.
Miyake et al (1985)
35% of children in japan were reported as Ambivalent. Stranger Situation lacks cultural validity.
Rothbaum et al (2000)
stated that the Strange Situation is not an appropriate procedure for measuring attachment in non-Western cultures.
De Wolff and van Ijzendoorn (1997)
meta-analysis that concluded that infants form different attachments to their mothers and fathers.
Thompson (2000)
stated that as a measuring tool the Strange Situation has Short-term Reliability; a child can therefore be tested a while after and still have the same classifications.
Main et al (1985)
used the Strange Situation as a basis for the Adult Attachment interview (AAI)
Deprivation
the removal of previous social experiences or person(s) of whom a child is attached.
Privation
the absence of any meaningful social experiences and/or the absence of any attachment relationship with an adult.
Robertson and Bowlby (1952)
identified the short-term effects of deprivation by observing 49 children aged between 1 and 4 yrs old. P.D.D was established.
Robertson and Robertson (1971)
S.T effects of deprivation can be prevented/Study: fostered 4 children and allowed them to visit home during separation, take their toys and photographs.The children showed no distress.
Bowlby's 44 Thieves (1946)
showed a correlation between deprivation and emotional maladjustment. 86% of the 16 youths classified as Affection-less Psychopaths suffered from prolonged separation.
Rutter (1981)
stated that it was in fact the level of stress caused by separation rather than separation alone that caused long-term problems.
Quinton and Rutter (1976)
Bowlby's theory on the L.T effects of deprivation did not concord with their findings, children who experienced hospitalization did not show any behavioral problems according to interviews and teacher
Curtis (1977)
the case of Genie, in which a girl suffered from privation as she was isolated from the world from since she was a baby.
Koluchova (1976)
the recovery of twins suffering from the effects of privation was investigated. They, despite the odds, made a remarkable recovery.
Hodges and Tizard (1989)
investigated the effects of adoption on 26 children in residential care. They concluded that their was no major difficulties in C.D, only a few were unpopular, overly friendly and aggressive.
Age Related Benefits of Adoption
the earlier a child is adopted from a case of privation the less likely they are to suffer cognitive impairment.
Selman and Jaquette (1977)
Opinion on friendship change due to maturation.
Selman and Jaquette's Development of friendship (3-7)
playing together.
Selman and Jaquette's Development of friendship (4-9)
giving help, but does not include the idea of reciprocity.
Selman and Jaquette's Development of friendship (6-12)
focus on reciprocity.
Selman and Jaquette's Development of friendship (9-15)
intimacy and sharing.
Selman and Jaquette's Development of friendship (12-adult)
interdependent but also autonomy of each other.
Bigelow and La Gaipa (1980)
an alternative description of friendship to that of Selman and Jaquette (1977)
Bigelow and La Gaipa's Development of friendship (7-8)
Reward-cost/ common activities, similar expectations, lives nearby.
Bigelow and La Gaipa's Development of friendship (9-10)
Normative/ shared values and rules.
Bigelow and La Gaipa's Development of friendship (11-12)
Empathic/ understanding, sharing of information about self, shared interest.
Waldrop and Halverson (1975)
suggested that boys tend to have extensive relationships and girls intensive ones.
Halle (1999)
investigated: influence of sex on friendship choices. 122 children (4-8 yrs) were asked what imaginary children they would choose for a variety of situations. Younger and mostly girls chose same sex
De Guzman et al (2004)
found that 3-10 yrs old Brazilian children also choose the same sex friendships. They also found that girls dislike more individuals then girls.
Rose and Rudolph (2006)
meta-analysis that reviews sex differences in friendships, boys are more extensive and girls more intensive.
Coie et al (1982)
the classification of peer responses towards popular, unpopular and rejected children.
Coie et al (1982) Popular
like by MANY/ Not liked by FEW
Coie et al (1982) Rejected
like by FEW/ Not liked by MANY
Coie et al (1982) Neglected
like by FEW/ Not liked by FEW
Coie et al (1982) Controversial
like by MANY/ Not liked by MANY
Coie et al (1982) Average
like by AVERAGE/ Not liked by AVERAGE
Dodge (1983)
observed how 5 yrs old children join play, due to their popularity. Popular - observe and join positively. Rejected - interrupt and disrupt. Neglected - observe passively.
Schaffer (2004) Characteristics of Popular children
Less aggressive, High level of cooperative play, positive disposition, lots of interaction.
Schaffer (2004) Characteristics of Rejected children
little sharing or cooperative play, antisocial and argumentative, solitary activities, talkative, inappropriate and disruptive behaviors.
Schaffer (2004) Characteristics of Neglected children
a lot of solitary activities, rarely agressive, little antisocial behavior, shy and unassertive, avoids interaction with a single child, rather be in groups.
Xie et al (2006)
semi-structured interview. 489 African-American children were asked what are the characteristics of a popular individual. 6 yrs - positive behaviors/ 9-12 yrs - appearance/ 12- deviant behaviour.
Parker and Asher (1987) A Causal Model of Peer Popularity/Rejection
Deviant Behavior = Low Peer Acceptance = Deviant Socialization Experiences = Maladjusted outcomes (school drop out, psychopathology).
Parker and Asher (1987) An Accidental Model of Peer Popularity/Rejection
Underlying disturbance = Deviant behavior/ Low Peer Acceptance = Maladjusted outcomes (school drop out, psychopathology).
Kupersmidt and Coie (1990)
characteristics of rejected children when they are older. 112 participants aged between 11-18 yrs. Rejected - later dropped out of school, had contact with police. Popular - no such conclusion
Laursen et al (2007)
investigated the theory that friendship reduces the effects social isolation. Found that the presence of a friend reduces the effects of being an isolated child.