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Couples - Sociologists

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Murdock (1949)
defines family as 'a group- of people who live in the same house. It includes adults of both sexes, at least two of whom have a socially approved sexual children and one or more children'
Parsons (1955)
Functionalist - instrumental and expressive roles in a nuclear family
Young + Willmott (1962)
'Symmetrical Family' - men are now taking on a greater share of the housework
Bott (1957)
Two types of conjugal roles - segrated conjugal roles and joint conjuagal roles.
Oakley (1974)
Criticises Young + Willmott and the 'symmetrical family' as it is exaggerated
Boulton (1983)
Fewer than 20% of men had a major role in the care of the children
Warde + Hetherington (1993)
sex-typing of domestic roles remains strong
Future Foundation (2000)
Generational change - 70% of womendo less housework than their mothers, 65% of men do more than their fathers
Gershuny (1994)
'Trend towards equality' - wives that worked full time did less domestic work
Sullivan (2000)
trend towards greater equality as men did more domestic work - data collected 1975, 1987 and 1997
Crompton (1997)
Accepts Gershuny's evidence - as women's earnings increase, men do more work in the home
Silver (1987)
Commecialisation of housework - causing less of a burden on women
Schor (1993)
Commecialisation of housework - causing less of a burden on women
Barrett + McIntosh (1994)
Men gain more from women's domestic work than they give in financial support
Kempson (1994)
low income families - women denied their own needs to make ends meet
Graham (1984)
women living on benefits after separating with their husbands felt better off - benefits a more reliable source of income
Pahl + Volger (1993)
Pooling and allowance systems
Hardill (1997)
30 dual career couples - men still had a part in the important decisions if not making them alone
Finch (1983)
women's lives structured around husband's career
Edgall (1980)
Very Important Decisions made by husband - important made jointly - less important made by wife
Yearshire (1997)
found that on average women suffer 35 assaults before making a report
Cheal (1991)
state agencies are reluctant to get involved in domestic abuse cases
Dobash + Dobash
domestic violence is evidence of patriachy
Ferri + Smith (1996)
provide evidence of the dual burden
Morris (1990)
found that men who had suffered a loss of their masculine role as a result of become unemployed saw domestic work as women's work
Ramos (2003)
men who are not in work and partner works full-time, male domestic labour matches that of his partner
Duncombe + Marsden (1995)
argue that women are expected not only to have a dual burden of housework and paid work, but also a triple shift that includes emotion work
Dunne (1999)
in lesbian relationships women do not have to apply to certain gender scripts and so relationships are more equal when it comes to childcare and housework and both hold each other's career to the same standard
Weeks (1999)
same-sex relationships offer greater possibilities for equality
Coleman et al (2007)
women are more likely to have experienced 'intimate violence' across all four types of abuse - partner abuse, family abuse, sexual assault and stalking