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Childhood - Sociologists

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Aries (1960)
historical evidence for the fact that childhood is a social construct
Shorter (1975)
high death rates encouraged indifference towards children, later through changes that took place in society - society is more childcentred
Punch (2001)
study of childhood in rural Bolivia - children are expected to aid in work from the age of 5
Holmes (1974)
study of a Samoan village found that 'too young' was never given as a reason for not letting a child undertake a specific task
Firth (1970)
Tikopia in the west Pacific - less value is placed on a child showing obedience to adult authority
Malinowski (1957)
Trobriand Islands - children's sexual behaviour treat with 'tolerance and amused interest'
Pilcher (1995)
important feature of the construct of childhood is separateness
De Mause (1974)
'the history of childhood is a nightmare'
Hillman (1993)
boys are more likely to be allowed to cycle or walk home and go out after dark alone
Bonke (1999)
girls do more of the domestic labour - especially in lone parent households where they do 5 times the work that boys do
Branners (1994)
study of 15-16 year olds found that Asian parents were more likely than other parents to be strict towards their daughters
Bhatti (1999)
found that family honour could be a restriction for children, particularly in the behaviour of girls
Howard (2001)
children born into poor families are more likely to die in infancy or childhood
Firestone (1979)
'protection' from paid work is not a benefit to children but a form of inequality and forcibly segregating adults and children, making them dependent
Cunningham (2007)
home habitat of 8 year olds has shrunk to one ninth of the size it was 25 years ago
Gittins (1998)
uses the term 'age patriachy' to describe inequalities between adults and children
Humphreys + Thiara (2002)
a quater of women in their study left their abusive partner because of fear for their children
Hockey + James (1993)
children resisting the stuctures enforced - by 'acting up' to be like adults or 'acting down' to be like children younger than them
Postman (1994)
childhood is 'disappearing at a dazzling speed' with the disapperence of children's traditionally unsupervised games and children commiting 'adult' crimes such as murder - due to television and the rise of print media
Opie (1993)
argues that childhood is not disappearing but instead the seperate childhood culture is changing
Palmer (2006)
'toxic childhood' - rapid technological and cultural changes have damaged children's physical
Margo + Dixon (2006)
the UK is near the top or at the top of international league tables for obesity, self harm, sucide, alchol and drug abuse and violence