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fertility rate
the average number of children women will have during their fertile years - has risen since 2001 but lower than historically
infant mortality rate
measure of the number of infants who die before their first birthday
Brass + Kabir (1978)
argue that the trend towards smaller families began not in rural areas but in urban areas
economic liability
children, because unable to work due to child labour laws and changing norms, have become this and hence there has been a fall in the number of children people are having
dependency ratio
the ratio between the size of the working population and the size of the non-working or dependant part of the population
death rate
number of deaths per thousand of the population per year which has fallen
Tranter (1996)
over three quaters of the decline in death rate from 1850 to 1970 was due to a fall in the number of infectious diseases
McKeown (1972)
argues that improved nutrition accounted forn up to half of the reduction in death rates
Griffiths Report (1988)
on the care of the elderly and saw society as facing the problem of meeting the escalating costs of heath and social care
the negative sterotyping of people on he basis of their age
Townsend (1981)
reasons for negative attitudes towards old people is due to the negative attitudes towards the elderly in society is due to the socially constructed idea that the old age is a period of dependency
Hirsch (2005)
argues that a number of important social policies and trends will need to change to tackle new problems
net migration
the difference between the numbers immigrating and the numbers emigrating and is expressed as a net increase or net decrease