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A natural or synthetic substance or chemical that affects the central nervous system
Your body is physically dependent on it
Reaction time
The time it takes you to respond to a stimulus
Liver cirrhosis
Over-consumption of alcohol causes the death of liver cells, forming scar tissue that blocks blood flow. This leads to toxic substances building up in the body.
Yellowing of eyes and skin
Decrease the feeling of pain, work by blocking nerve impulses in the brain
Decrease brain activity. Cause depressed heart rate and respiration, slowed reflexes, nausea and vomiting, suppression of pain, slow & slurred speech
Increase brain activity by increasing the amount of neurotransmitter released into neurone synapses. Cause increased heart rate and breathing rate, speed up reflexes, make you feel alert
Distort what you see and hear by altering the pathways nerve impulses usually travel along.
Short-term effects of alcohol
Slower reflexes, blurred vision, lower inhibitions
Long-term effects of alcohol
Liver cirrhosis, reduced fertility, brain damage
Examples of painkillers
Morphine, paracetomol, aspirin
Examples of stimulants
Cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, speed
Examples of depressants
Heroin and alcohol
Examples of hallucinogens
LSD, magic mushrooms
An addictive chemical that raise the heart beat, narrows arteries and so causes high blood pressure, leading to heart disease
Coats the lining of the lungs making them less able to take in oxygen, and also contains carcinogens
Carbon monoxide
A poisonous gas which reduces the capacity for red blood cells to carry oxygen by attaching to haemoglobin