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Cognitive Explanation of Hallucinations
the mistaking of internal thoughts as external experiences.
73% of S.Z sufferers reported having experienced auditory hallucinations.
hallucinations occur when people mistake their own internal, mental or private events/ e.g the imaginary is mistaken for the real world.
Slade and Bentall's Five Factor Model (FFM)
a model that provides a visual representation of the onset of hallucination.
Stress Induced Arousal (FFM)
in times of stress we are under a heightened state of arousal and information is not processed effectively making it difficult to decide what is real.
some people hallucinate more easily, they have 'suggestibility'
The Environment (FFM)
influences hallucinatory responses, e.g. very quiet or noisy conditions.
hallucinations bring relief by reducing anxiety.
people see or hear what they believe exists.
Close and Garety (1998)
They disproved the FFM, as they found that there is an increase of anxiety. According to the FFM, hallucinations are reinforced as they provide relief.
cross-cultural study in Puerto Rico that supports the FFM as people hallucinate what they already to exist. These people hallucinate spirits but are not considered as mentally ill.
Cognitive Explanation of Delusions
the degree of conviction in the belief, and the extent of reoccupation with that belief. Strauss (1969)
Bentall et al (1991)
delusions are the result of abnormal cognitions in reasoning, attention, memory ect.
delusions are the product of abnormal perceptions. Delusions are an adaptive and rational response to abnormal internal events such as hallucinations.
Maher's Anomalous Experience Model (1974)
proposes the delusions are 'mini-theories', they provide order and meaning to the world/ they are needed when events are not predictable/ delusional explanations bring relief.
studies have shown that delusions occur in a wide range of disorders where no prior history of cognitive impairment is evident.
Zimbardo et al (1981)
When normal individuals undergo abnormal experiences, delusions occur.This supports the idea of a continuum of delusions.
A continuous sequence in which adjacent elements are not perceptibly different from each other, although the extremes are quite distinct.