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has questioned the existence of S.Z. Labelling is a form of social control that robs individuals of their liberty. It excludes those who do not conform to social norms.
he stated that S.Z is a learned social role.His Labelling theory proposes that an individual who breaks one or more residual rules is assigned a label such as "mentally ill".
a person is labeled as having ''S.Z" or being "Mad" they, thus, acts as such.
''S.Z is at best deriding to an individual and at worst damaging''
Being Sane in Insane Places. A study where normal participants where diagnosed as mentally ill due to the labels they were given in a Mental Hospital.
a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often abuse on the part of individual members occurs, this thus causes impaired cognitive and social development.
Bateson et al (1956)
suggested that communication between parents and offspring was sometimes contradictory; they coined the phrase 'double bind'.
Lidz et al (1957)
S.Z is a way of handling dysfunctional families. As some families fail to provide stable and supportive environment or role model.
type of family where conflict between parents result in competition for the affection of family members and a desire to take control and undermine the other parent.
type of family where one parent is dominant and the other submissive. The children follow the dominant one/ this impairs their cognitive and social development.
The Expressed Emotion Explanation (EE)
the explanation that S.Z is worsen by contact with loved ones.
Brown et al (1958)
found that S.Z sufferers who are discharged and return to their parents or spouses fared worst then those returning to lodgings.
Bebbington and Kuipers (1994)
cross-cultural meta-analysis in which 50% of the people living in a High EE family relapses in relation to 21% of Low EE families.
Kanter et al (1987)
scrutinizes the causality of EE explanation; does it worsen or cause S.Z.
the EE explanation can be used to explain Depressive Illness and Eating Disorders.
Leff et al (1990)
the EE, communication pattern is also evident in Western culture.