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1.4 Networks


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Wireless transmission
Uses radio waves for communication
Wireless Access Point
Device that allows wireless devices to connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi
Brute force attack
Large number of consecutive guesses used to find the value of the desired data e.g. password
Improve key strength
Increasing the number of bits used for a key
Wireless encryption standards
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
Server
powerful computer which provides services or resources required by any of the clients
Client
computer which requests the services or resources provided by the server
Role of the client
The client sends requests to the server, Waits for a reply, Receives the reply
Role of the server
Waits for requests from a client, Acknowledges the request, the requested data is sent back to the client
Client-server network
Central server is used to manage security
Client-server network
Files are held on the central server
Client-server network
Processing tasks are performed by the server
Client-server network
Can provide services such as email, file storage, backup and printing
Client-server network
Suitable for many different types of organisation, small and large
Client-server network
Can require specialist IT staff to administer the network
Client-server advantage
All data can be backed up centrally rather than on each individual computer
Client-server advantage
Security is better because data is held in one location rather than all over the organisation
Client-server advantage
Users can log in from any computer on the network and access their data
Client-server disadvantage
If server goes down, no access to files
Peer-to-peer Network
No central server controls files or security
Peer-to-peer Network
Suitable for a small companies with fewer computers
Peer-to-peer advantage
Easier to set up � computers can simply be cabled together
Peer-to-peer advantage
No special software is required to run the network
Peer-to-peer advantage
Individual computers can share a printer, router, modem and other hardware
Peer-to-peer advantage
Users can communicate directly with each other and share each others� files
Peer-to-peer disadvantage
Viruses and malware are easily transferred over this type of network
Peer-to-peer disadvantage
Data recovery and backup is not done centrally, so each computer has to have its own backup system
Peer-to-peer disadvantage
Files can be hard to locate as not stored centrally
Internet host
Company (often an ISP) that is able to store your files and make them available to you or others from other Internet-connected computers
The Cloud
Resources, data and information hosted on remote servers
Software as a Service
Cloud-based servers enable access to software on demand e.g. Office software
Cloud Computing advantage
No need to have the software installed on a local machine. No need for a big, powerful computer
Cloud Computing advantage
Can access the software (and your data) from any Internet-connected computer
Cloud Computing advantage
Backing up data is no longer crucial � it is done by the service provider
Cloud Computing disadvantage
Idea of handing over important data to another company worries some people
Cloud Computing disadvantage
Sensitive data could be more vulnerable to hacking
Cloud Computing disadvantage
Usually only a small amount of data storage is free
Copper coaxial cable
Data transmitted through electrical current
Copper coaxial cable advantage
Tried and trusted technology, relatively inexpensive
Copper coaxial cable disadvantage
Signal affected by electric and magnetic fields, low bandwidth, very heavy cables
Fibre Optic
Data transmitted via light signals
Fibre Optic Advantage
Very fast data transmission
Fibre Optic Advantage
low loss of signal over distance
Fibre Optic Advantage
Not affected by magnetic or electric fields
Fibre Optic Advantage
Require very little power
Fibre Optic Advantage
More difficult to �tap into� than copper cables
Fibre Optic disadvantage
High investment cost
Fibre Optic disadvantage
Need for expensive optical transmitters and receivers
Wireless Advantage
No need for trailing wires (safer)
Wireless Advantage
Allows devices to be used anywhere provided there is a signal
Wireless Advantage
Easier to add devices to a network
Wireless disadvantage
Data transmission rate less than wired systems
Wireless disadvantage
Signal can be blocked by objects or walls
Wireless disadvantage
Higher security issues
Network performance factors
Bandwidth,Latency,Error rate/collisions,Retransmission rate