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The geocentric model, also known as the Ptolemaic system, (Ptolemy was a Greek philosopher). It was developed to explain how the planets, the Sun, and even the stars orbit around the Earth.
In a book called On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies (that was published as Copernicus lay on his deathbed), Copernicus proposed that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the Solar System.
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries
English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.