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Topic 16 The Age of Revolution

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American Revolution
a war fought from 1775-1783 and won by the 13 American colonies to achieve independence from Great Britain.
French Revolution
An uprising in France against the monarchy from 1789 to 1799 which resulted in the establishment of France as a republic.
First Estate
Members of the French clergy (Church)
Second Estate
Members of the French nobility
Third Estate
The French commoners (about 97% of the population)
Reign of Terror
A period of brutal suppression or intimidation by those in power; thousands of suspected counterrevolutionaries were executed by the guilotine; led by Maximillen Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
Jacobin leader of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution
Haitian Revolution
a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Republic of Haiti. The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a state.
Latin American Revolutions
the 18th- and 19th-century revolutionary wars against European colonial rule that led to the independence of the Latin American states.
Simon Bolivar
a South American general and statesman who brought political independence to six present-day nations. Called the Liberator, he was the greatest military figure of South America.
In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a Spanish-born Spaniard, or mainland Spaniard, residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies, as opposed to a person of full Spanish descent born in the Americas
a person of mixed European and black descent, especially in the Caribbean.