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food which is served separately from the main dish, such as vegetables.
cooked but still firm when bitten. Literally 'to the tooth'
Sprinkled with cheese and/or breadcrumbs and browned under the grill or in the oven.
a large pan half-filled with water on which another pan is set. Used to keep foods warm or to cook very delicate food.
a bundle of fresh herbs used in stews or soups. Removed before serving.
to burn/caramelise sugar on top of a dessert.
a fruit or vegetable purée used as a sauce or to decorate.
fried or grilled cubes of bread. Served with soup or salad.
wrapped in pastry
food which is covered with an alcohol such as brandy and set on fire (pancakes, christmas pudding)
an edible decoration
thinly cut strips of vegetables, matchsticks
a richly spiced liquid used to give flavour and tenderise meat and fish.
mise en place
Literally 'put in place'. Preparation time for ingredients and equipment before beginning to cook.
a smooth mixture or paste made by blending food
to make a liquid thicker through boiling it to evaporate some of the water.
a mixture of fat and flour used to thicken sauces.
fry by tossing in a small amount of fat.
beef, pork, lamb
chicken, duck, turkey
cod, haddock, whiting, plaice
mackerel, salmon, trout
oysters, prawns, crab
feels firm, clear eyes, smells salty
Sirloin, fillet, rib-eye
Tender cuts of meat are suitable for grilling and stir-frying.
Round steak, rump, chuck
Tough cuts are stewed until tender.
Whole chicken, turkey or duck; rib or fillet.
Big joints – or whole birds – are often roasted.
a natural plant hormone. It affects the growth, ripening, and aging of plants.
feel firm and plump
any kind of grain. White, rice, rye, oats, corn.
is fluffy. Suitable for stir-fry, curry, etc
is sticky. Suitable for risotto.
any ready-prepared food. Dried pasta, ready meals, fresh bread.
have thick whites and a round, fat yolk.
eggs are produced to the highest standards of food safety.
eggs are organic.
sugar and butter are beaten together until pale and creamy. Victoria sponge cake, biscuits.
eggs and sugar are whisked together. Swiss rolls, sponge cakes.
fat is rubbed into flour until the texture resembles breadcrumbs. Scones, biscuits, rock cakes.
fat is melted with sugar or syrup. Gingerbread, flapjacks.
stretchy protein found in wheat and related grains.
a living fungus which thrives on simple sugars. As the sugars are metabolized, carbon dioxide and alcohol are released into the bread dough, making it rise.
pies, quiches, tarts, pasties
sweet pies, fruit tarts
sausage rolls, pies, fruit turnovers
strudels, pastry parcels
cook food in boiling liquid, makes texture softer
more gentle than boiling, slightly lower temperature
cooking food very gently in liquid heated below boiling point
cooking food slowly in its own juices or stock, makes meat tender.
meat is fried first, then stewed
cooking food in steam from boiling water. Preserves colour, texture and vitamins.
cooking in a sealed pan. Trapped steam causes pressure and temperature to rise.
boiling food for a short period of time and then plunging into cold water. Preserves colour, texture and vitamin content of vegetables.
useful for defrosting and reheating food. Heats food quickly but does not brown food.
fat or oil heated to a high temperature cooks food quickly. Adds flavour but makes food less healthy.
cooking food in fat using a frying pan
food is completely submerged in hot oil to cook. Delicate foods may be dipped in batter first.
uses a wok and little oil to cook finely chopped foods quickly. Popular in Asian cuisine.
cooking food in the dry heat of an oven.
cooking food in the dry heat of an oven. Fat is added to the food to help the outside crisp while keeping the inside of food moist.
cooks and browns food quickly using dry heat.
factors of food presentation
colour, texture, flavour, shape, layout, temperature, timing, customer needs