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Employment and unemployment


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The employment level
The number of people in work.
The employment rate
The proportion of people in work relative to the entire workforce.
The level of unemployment
The number of people out of work.
The unemployment rate
The proportion of people out of work relative to the entire workforce
The Labour Force Survey
A measure of unemployment based on a quarterly survey of 60,000 households.
The claimant count
A measure of unemployment recording all who are claiming Jobseekers' Allowance (JSA).
Cyclical unemployment
Unemployment caused by the economic cycle, as the economy enters recession.
Demand-deficient unemployment
Unemployment caused by a lack of aggregate demand in the economy.
Structural unemployment
Unemployment caused by the decline of particular industries e.g. many manufacturing industries in the UK
Frictional unemployment
Unemployment occurring as people move between jobs: For example, newly-redundant workers or people joining the labour market for the first time such as university graduates may take time searching to
Technological unemployment
Similar to structural unemployment, caused by workers being made redundant because of new technologies.
Costs of unemployment
These include costs to individuals and dependents e.g. lost income, loss of self-esteem, cost to firms as people spend less and cost to government in terms of increased benefits.
Job Seekers Allowance
The main benefit available to the unemployed.