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1A 인사말 - greetings
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1A N은/는 N이에요/예요 - Topic particle 'to be' (이다)
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1A N입니까? N입니다 - formal question & statement
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1A N이/가 아닙니다 - formal negation
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1A N이/가 있다/없다 - to exist, to have, to be (there)
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1A 이거는 (그, 저) N이에요/예요 - this, near listener, that
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1A N 주세요 - polite requests
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1A N하고 (과/와, (이)랑) - and
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1A V아/어요 - inform. polite present tense
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1A N을/를 - direct object marking particle
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1A N에서 - location of action
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1A 안 V - negation
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1A 여기가 N이에요/예요 - here is N (place)
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1A N에 있다/없다 - There is/isn't N at location
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1A N에 가다/오다 - leaving conv. loc./coming to conv. l
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1A N 앞, 되, 옆 - front, behind, beside N
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1A 날짜와 요일 - dates and days of the week
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1A N에 - time when action occurs
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1A V았/었- - past tense marker
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1A V고 - 'and' (sequential)
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1A V(으)세요 - polite request, suggest, command
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1A # 개[병, 잔, 그릇, etc] - counting words
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1A N이/가 A아/어요 - Adj describes N
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1A N도 - N also
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1A 'ㅂ' irregular - some verbs ㅂ>우 before vowels
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1A A/V지만 - contrasting clause conj. 'but'
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1A A/V(스)ㅂ니다/까 - form. pol. statements & questions
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1A A/V고 - 'and' (non-sequential)
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1A V(으)ㄹ까요? - suggestion, permission, ask intent
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1A 'ㄷ' irregular - some verbs ㄷ>ㄹ before vowels
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1A 이, 그, 저 N - this, that near listener, that
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1A A/V네요 - feeling or surprise about new info
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1B N의 N - possessive particle
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1B N을/를 잘하다 /잘 못하다 /못하다 - do well /can't do well
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1B N(이)세요 - Honorific -이에요/예요 (이다)
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1B A/V(으)시- - Honorific marker
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1B 시간 - time
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1B N부터 N까지 - from (time/scale) to (time/scale)
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1B V아서/어서 - sequential actions with continuity
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1B V(으)ㄹ 거예요 - future plan/posibility
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1B 'ㅡ' irregular - dropped before 아/어
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1B V지 마세요 - negative commands
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1B N만 - only/just
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1B V아야/어야 되다 (하다) - obligat'n/need (form&writ)
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1B V지요[죠]? - confirmation 'right?'
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1B N(이)지요[죠] - confirmation 'right?'
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1B V고 있다 - progressive tenses
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1B 못 V - inability 'can't do'
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1B A/V아서/어서 - reason in cause-effect relationship
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1B V(으)려고 하다 - intention, plan, or desire
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1B N에서 N까지 - from (place) to (place)
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1B V아/어 주(시)다 - subj(Hon) does for s1 else
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1B N(으)로 - direction of movement
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1B 'ㄹ' irregular - conj 받침X; dropped b4 ㄴ,ㅂ,ㅅ,을/를
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1B A(으)ㄴ N - adj descriptive form
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1B N한테(께) - N receives action of the V (Hon)
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1B V아/어 보세요 - recommendation or suggestion to try
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1B A/V(으)면 - conditional clauses 'if/when'
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1B V는 N - adnominal clauses (relative clauses)
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1B V고 싶다 - 1st/2nd person hope/desire
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1B V고 싶어 하다 - 3rd person hope/desire
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1B V(으)ㄹ 수 있다/없다 - can/can't
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1B V(으)ㄹ게요 - promise to do
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1B V(으)러 가다/오다 - purpose for going/coming
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1B V(으)면서 - simultaneous action (by same subject)
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2A N(이)라고 하다 - to be called
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2A V(으)려고 - in order to / so that
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2A V거나 - or
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2A N(이)나 - or
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2A V는 것 - adnominal clauses (V-ing)
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2A V(으)ㄹ 줄 알다/모르다 - to know/not know how to
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2A V(으)ㄴ N - past tense adnominal
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2A A/V지 않다 - negation
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2A V아/어 보다 - to have tried/experienced st
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2A A(으)ㄴ데, N인데 - info b4 req/sug/com/explain
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2A V는데 - info b4 req/sug/com/explain
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2A V(으)ㄹ N - modifies N, 'to V'
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2A A/V(으)ㄴ/는 것 같다 - conjecture/spec 'seems like'
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2A N인 것 같다 - conjecuture/speculation 'seems like'
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2A N보다 - comparative 'than'
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2A A/V았/었으면 좋겟다 - wishful thinking, unlikely
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2A A/V(으)ㄹ까요? - ask for opinion/wonder about st
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2A A/V(으)ㄹ 거예요 - indirect assumption/opinion
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2A A/V(으)니까 N(이)니까 - reason/basis for 2nd cl
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2A V고 나서 - completed action and following action n
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2A N(으)로 - means/method of action
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2A N(이)라서 - reason for next cl. 'because it is N'
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2A V(으)면 되다 - explain a rule/solution "its ok if"
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2A V(으)ㄴ 것 같다 - past tense conj/spec "seems like"
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2A A/V(으)ㄹ 것 같다 - speculation/humble opinion
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2A V는지/N인지 알다/모르다 - to (not) know something
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2A V(으)려면 - 'if you want V, then..."
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2A V다가 - interrupted action followed by ...
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2A A/V -겠- - supposition/conjecture
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2A N 때문에 - cause, source or reason 'because of N'
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2A V아/어 버리다 - relief/disappt & 'complete' actions
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2A A/V(으)ㄹ 때 - the time when A/V
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2A A(으)ㄴ데요 V는데요 N인데요 - expecting reaction
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2A V는/N 중이다 - st in progress
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2A A(으)ㄴ가요? V나요? N인가요? - gentle questions
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2A N밖에 - no other possibility "outside of" neg. se
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2B N 중에(서) - among all the N's
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2B 반말 - casual speech 'half words'
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2B V(으)ㄹ래요 - intention, asks intention, suggestion
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2B A(으)ㄴ데 V는데 N인데 - unexpected outcome/contrast
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2B N마다 - every/each N
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2B A/V 때마다 - whenever/every time A/V
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2B V는 게 어때요? - advise/recommend V
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2B V기로 하다- decision/promise to do st
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2B A아/어 보이다 - judgement on appearance
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2B N처럼 - 'as/like' N
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2B A(으)ㄴ V는 편이다 - tendency toward A/V
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2B A게 - degree/means of action
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2B A/V(으)ㄹ지 모그겠다 - uncertainty
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2B A/V기는 하지만 - 'A/V true, but'
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2B A/V기/N(이)기 때문에 - 'b/c of 1st cl.'
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2B V기(가) A - judgement/evaluation of action
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2B V(으)ㄴ 적이 있다/없다 - has/hasn't experienced
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2B A/V았/었을 때 - time when st happened/existed
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2B V아/어도 되다/괜찮다 - permission
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2B V(으)면 안 되다 - denial of permission
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2B A아/어지다 - change in condition
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2B V게 되다 - st happens regardless of will
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2B V기 전에 - before doing V
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2B V(으)ㄴ 후에 - after doing V
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2B N 대신 - 'instead of' N
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2B V아/어 놓다 - V completed & state maintained
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2B V(으)ㄹ까 하다 -undecided intent/consideration
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2B A/V(으)ㄹ 테니까 - strong suppos'n/volition cond. 4
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2B V아/어다 주다/모시다/데리다 - does 4 others
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2B V(으)ㄹ 뻔하다 - almost happened/close call
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2B 'ㅎ' 불규칙 - 'ㅎ' irregular
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2B V아/어 있다 - resulting condition/state
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2B V(으)ㄴ 지 - time since event/action
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2B N(이)나 2 - # more than typical
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2B A다; Vㄴ/는다 - obj. stmts in journalism
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2B N(이)다 - obj. stmts in journalism
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3A A도고 Vㄴ/는다고 N(이)라고 하다 - indirect quotes
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3A V아/어야겠다 - intent'n to do st that should be done
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3A A다고 Vㄴ/는다고 N(이)라고 들었다 - heard information
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3A A대요 Vㄴ/는대요 N(이)래요 - abbr. of indirect quotes
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3A V자마자 - right after 1st cl.
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3A V(으)라고 하다 (달라고/주라고)- quote commands/request
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3A V느라고 - reason/cause 4 not able to do (well)
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3A 누구나 언제나 어디나 무엇이나 무슨 N(이)나 - any/every
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3A A/V(으)ㄹ N일 텐데(요) - guess/predict state/action
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3A A(으)냐고 V느냐고 N(이)냐고 하다/묻다 - reported speech ?
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3A A/V(으)ㄹ 줄 몰랐다 - surprise st dif. from expected/
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3A V자고 하다 - quote 'shall we' suggestions
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3A A(으)ㄴ가 V나 N인가 보다 - guess from indirect info
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3A N(이)나 - an acceptable 2nd choice
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3A V아/어 보니까 - 'having done V...'
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3A A/V던데요; N이던데요 - experienced fact/ expect reacti
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3A V(으)ㄹ까 말까 (하다) - hesitation
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3A V지 그래요? - 'why not/don't you?'
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3A V(으)ㄹ걸 (그랬다) - regret over not doing
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3A N(이)라도 - unavoidable 2nd choice
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3A A/V거든(요); N(이)거든(요) - FYI because...
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3A 아무 N도 - no-body/thing/where
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3A V이/히/리/기 - passive voice construction
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3A V이/히/리/기 - passive voice (part 2)
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3A V았/었다가 - 'turns around' does complete opposite
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3A A(으)ㄴ; V는; N인데도 - despite 1st cl, 2nd cl occurs
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3A A/V더니 - observation of change over time
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3A V도록 하다 - emphatic command
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3A V다(가) - 1st cl. basis/cause of neg. situation i
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3A A다; Vㄴ/는다고요, N(이)라고요 - reconfirmation/astonishm
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3A 이무리 A/V아/어도 - regardless of 1sr cl. 2nd cl. occ
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3A A/V아/어야 할 텐데(요) - hope/should + worry
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3A V기; N을/를 위해(서) - purpose of action (form/writ)
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3A V아/어지다 - change due to external force
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3A A(으)ㄴ/V는/N인데도 불구하고 - emphasizing 'despite'
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3A N에 대해(서); N에 대한 N - (form) topic of discussion
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3B A/V던 - past acts unfinished, can continue/freq.
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3B A/V잖아요 - confirmation/reminder
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3B V(으)ㄹ 생각이다/계획/예정
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3B V(으)려면 멀었다 - timing far away
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3B V이/히/리/기/우 사동 - causative
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3B V 사동 - more causative verbs
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3B A다면; Vㄴ/는다면; N(이)라면 - unrealistic hypothetical
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3B 무엇이든지; 무슨 N(이)든지 - choice doesn't matter
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3B V았/었더니 - result after/following past action
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3B 얼마나 A(으)ㄴ지; Vㄴ/는지 모르다 - emphasize action/state
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3B A(으)ㄴ; V는; N인 모양이다 - guess on indir info (wr/f)
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3B A/V아/어야; N이어/여야 - condition required for action
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3B A/V(으)ㄹ까 봐 - worry potential bad future event
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3B V고 있다 - continuation of V state & wearing
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3B A/V았/었어야 했는데 - conject. of regret 'should have'
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3B V도록 - reason/purpose for following cl.
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3B 하도 A/V아/어서 - emphasizing extent
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3B A/V았/었던 - 1-2x past completed action
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3B A아/어하다 - 3rd pers. state of mind/feelings
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3B A/V(으)면 A/V(으)ㄹ수록 - the more.. the more
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3B V게 하다 - subj. indir'ly causes action to obj
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3B A/V(으)ㄹ걸요 - light rebut'l/surprise when guess
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3B A/V지 않으면 안 되다 - obligation (wr/f)
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3B V는 길에 - on they way/while doing
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3B N만 하다 - same size/quality as N
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3B V(으)ㄹ 생각도 못 하다 - impos. b/c of reason in 1st cl
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3B V(으)ㄹ 만하다 - to be worth doing
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3B A/V기로; N(으)로 유명하다 - 'renowned/famous for'
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3B V고 보니까 - come to know/feel different after V
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3B A(으)ㄴ;V는;N인 척하다 - fake/pretend
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3B A/V다니요; N(이)라니요 - exclamation/disbelief
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3B N(이)라고 해서 다 A(으)ㄴV는 이나다 - not all N are A/V
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3B Vㄴ/는/A다니까요, N(이)라니까요 - reconfirm w/ emphasis
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3B V고 말다 - occur w/o intention / achievement took
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4A V(ㄴ)는/A다면서요 - 'is [what I heard] true?'
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4A V다 보면 - 'If you keep Ving, then...'
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4A N V(ㄴ)는/A-다는 것이다/점이다 - The thing about N is tha
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4A V는 대로, N대로 - just like/based on/as soon as
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4A 어찌나/얼마나 A(으)ㄴ/V는지 - So A/V that...
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4A A/V(으)ㄹ 정도로/정도이다 - to the extent/point where
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4A A/V다가는 - If A/V continues then [neg. result]
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4A A/V(으)ㄹ 뿐만 아니라; N뿐만 ..- not only.. but also
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4A V(으)나 마나 - no use doing V/even w/o doing V outc
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4A V는 바람에 - as a result of (unintended) V, neg res
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4A N(이)라는 N - It's an N called N
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4A N에 비해서 - compared to N
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4A A/V기는커녕 N(은)는커녕 - st imp, let alone A/V/N
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4A A/V(으)ㄹ 게 뻔하다 - surely/evidently/obviously
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4A A(으)ㄴ/V는 반면에 - whereas, on the other hand
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4A A/V(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다 - no choice but to V, must be A
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4A A/V고, N이고 해서 - among other things, b/c A/V/N
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4A V(ㄴ)는/A다더니 - heard that/they say that
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4A A/V기 마련이다 - natural that/bound to
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4A V다 보니까 - after cont's/repeat Ving, come to thin
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4A A/V기는요 - not really/no need to
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4A A/V/N(이)든지 A/V/N(이)든지 - either .. or [is ok]
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N(이)야말로 - the very/indeed/exactly
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4A 여간 A/V/N 것이 아니다 / 여간 -지 않다 - not some ordinary
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4A A/V더라도 - even if unlikely hypoth'l cl2 same
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4A V(ㄴ)는/A다고 보다 - assertion/opinion
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4A V(으)ㄴ 채로 - while still
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4A A(으)ㄴ/V는지 A(으)ㄴ/V는지 - whether/if...or
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4A V아/어다가 - cl2 sw else w/ result of cl1
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4A V(ㄴ)는/A다는 N - N said to be A/V
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4A N을/를 비롯해서/비롯한 - including/starting w/ N
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4A A/V(으)며 - 2 things on equal terms / simultaneou
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4A A/V거든 - If A/V true, then...
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A/V았/었더라면 - If A/V had not been...
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4A A/V(으)ㅁ - A/V=N recorded facts/predeterm. info
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4A A(으)ㄴ/V는 듯하다 - form vers. of 것 같다
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4B A/V(으)ㄹ 리가 없다 - there's no way that
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4B V기가 무섭게 - 'as soon as' usually spoken
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4B (time) N 만에 - cl2 occurs (time) after cl1
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4B A/V(으)나, N(이)나 - Although A/V/N
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4B A/V더라고요 - directly saw/experienced
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4B N치고 - all N w/o exception OR for a N...
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4B V(ᄂ)는/A다는 것은 N에서 알 수 있다 - can tell by
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4B N에 의하면 - according to N, based on N
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4B V(으)려다가 - intended to, but reasons made impos
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4B A/V(으)ㄹ지도 모르다 - might/may
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4B A(으)ㄴ/V는가? - writ. plain form ?
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4B N마저 - even N incl. / last remaining N
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4B N1(이)면 N1, N2(이)면 N2 - from N1 to N2 [both good
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4B V는 김에 - while you're at it
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4B V느니 차라리 - rather do 2nd cl.
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4B N과/와 달라 - unlike N [st else is...]
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4B N에 따라서 - depending on N
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4B A(으)ㄴ/V는 데다가 - in addition to
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4B A(으)ㄴ/V는 셈이다 - more or less, you could say that
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4B N에 불과하다 - not exceeding N (lit & fig)
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4B N만 못하다 - not the the level of N
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4B V(으)ㄹ 게 아니라 - not V but../instead of V
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4B N(으)로서 - as an N [as the status of N]
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4B A/V(으)므로 - because (form./writ.)