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accurate
A measurement close to the true value.
anomalous result
A result that is not similar to other repeated readings.
Bar chart
A chart used to represent categorical data.
Control group
A second sample in which the independent variable is not changed.
Data
Information, qualitative or quantitative that have been collected.
Human Error
Random or systematic error caused by the experimenter.
Random Error
Cause readings to be spread around the true value, due to the results varying in an unpredictable way.
Systematic Error
Cause readings to be spread about some value other than the true value, due to results differing from the true value by a consistent amount each time a measurement is made.
Zero Error
When a device gives a result greater than zero when not measuring anything.
Evidence
Data which has been shown to be valid.
Fair Test
A test in which only the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.
Hazard
Something which can cause harm.
Hypothesis
A proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations.
Interval
The quantity between readings.
Scatter graph
Used when both variables are continuous.
Repeatable
An experiment where the original experimenter repeats the investigation using same method and equipment and obtains the same results.
Reproducible
An investigation that is repeated by another person, or by using different technique, and the same results are obtained.
Resolution
This is the smallest measurable change in the variable being measured, with a given piece of equipment.
Sketch graph
A line graph, showing the general trend between two variables. It will not have any points plotted and although the axes are labelled.
True value
This is the result that would be obtained by an ideal measurement.
Uncertainty
The interval within which the true value can be expected to lie, with a given level of confidence or probability.
Range
The maximum and minimum values of the independent or dependent variables; important in ensuring that any pattern is detected.
Precision
The degree that measurements are spread about the mean value. This depends only on the extent of random errors.
Interval
The quantity between separate readings.