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Area of Study 1: Chopin: Piano Prelude No. 15 in D

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an artistic movement in Europe, between c. 1800-1900, in which the artist was more concerned with feelings and emotions than with form
augmented 6th chord
chord which contains an augmented 6th interval (e.g. A♭,C,E♭,F♯. A♭ to F♯ = augmented 6th)
diminished 7th
a chord made up of superimposed minor third intervals (e.g. B,D,F,A♭)
dominant 13th
chord V (dominant) with the added 13th note
neopolitan chord
chord of the flattened supertonic (second degree) in first inversion
virtuoso performer
a person - in music or the arts in general - who has mastered the skills and techniques of their art form
soft pedal
pedal on a piano that, when pressed, softens the tone of the music
sustaining pedal
a pedal that, when pressed, sustains all the strings on the piano by removing the dampers from all strings and allowing them to vibrate freely
the notes of a chord played one after the other rather than together, e.g. C-E-G-C etc
'in the singing style', meaning that the melody is to be played legato
tempo rubato
literally means 'robbed' time - this is a technique where the player can pull back (or speed up) the for expressive effect
a musical texture involving polyphonic writing for instruments/voices. However, it is also known as a structure in which voice parts enter one after the other in imitation. The fugue has three sections: the exposition - middle entries - final entries
literally an ornament - 'a crushed in note' played as quickly as possible before the main note
dominant pedal
a sustained (or repeated) note(s) on the dominant note of the key
inner pedal
a sustained (or repeated) note(s) in the middle of a musical texture
inverted pedal
a sustained (or repeated) note(s) as the highest part in a musical texture
pivot note
a note common to both keys and used to pivot between two different keys, i.e. A♭ (of D♭major) is also G♯ (in C♯ minor)