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artificial life
the recreation of biological life by technological means
artificial neural network
an interconnected group of artificial neurons (brain cells) using computational, mathematical, or technological models
atomic segments
used in image segment growing; initially small groups of pixels with very similar greyscale values are identified.
average interrogator
Alan Turing's name for a typical individual involved as a judge in his imitation game, trying to differentiate a machine from a human.
best first search
exploring a problem by expanding the best (and most promising) option in the next level.
brain-in-a-vat experiment
a philosophical argument involving a disembodied brain, kept alive, yet fully experiencing life.
bucket brigade
a system used to pass on rewards from one rule to another
cellular automata
a regular grid of cells in which each one has finite states that can be affected by neighboring cells.
collective intelligence
shared or group intelligence arising from cooperation between individuals
common sense knowledge
the collection of facts and information that an ordinary person would know.
subjective experience, awareness and executive control of the mind
giving a brain (or ANN) a body in order for it to interact with the real world.
ensemble averaging
the average value of the same pixel taken over several time steps
mental states can be caused by physical effects but cause no resultant physical output themselves.
fitness function
used to calculate the overall value of a member of the population in a genetic algorithm in terms of its different characteristics.
an AI structure used to divide knowledge into substructures
free will
the ability to make choices, free from constraints
fuzzy trees
method of splitting a database into different regions, where the same piece of information can appear (to some extent) in several branches.
Garden of Eden patterns
in cellular automata, particularly patterns which cannot be realized from any previous pattern
goal-based agent
an autonomous entity which observes and acts upon an environment and directs its activity towards achieving goals.
greedy best first search
use of a heuristic to predict how close the end of a path is to a solution; paths which are closer to a solution are extended first
grey level
representation of an image pixel between black and white
growing (segments)
the method used to grow in regions in an image from atomic segments by associating areas with similar pixel vaules
hill climbing
an iterative procedure that attempts to find a better solution to a problem by making small changes. If a change produces a better solution, the new solution is retained, repeating until no further im
learning agent
an agent which can operate in unknown environments and improve through learning, using feedback to determine how its performance should be modified.
linearly separable problem
when represented as a pattern space, it requires only one straight cut to separate all of the patterns of one type in the space from all of the patterns of another.
local averaging
the value of a pixel is replaced with the average value of local pixels
local search
moving from solution to solution amongst candidate problem solutions until an optimal solution is found.
machine olfaction
sense of smell in a machine
model-based agent
an agent which can handle a partially observable environment. Its current state is stored, describing the parts of the world which cannot be seen. This knowledge is called a model of the world
use of several agents in a cooperative fashion, each providing a partial answer to a problem
new media
media which emerged in the latter part of the 20th century. On-demand access to (digitized) content any time, any where, on any digital device, with user feedback and creative participation
passive triangulation
distance measurement to an object using a two-camera system; it requires the position of a corresponding point in the two images to be known, along with the distance between the cameras.
pattern matching
in image processing, comparing a number of edge candidates with a previously defined edge pattern.
a binary classifier as the simplest for of neuron model
picture matrix
an array of image pixel vaules representing the scene viewed
pixel differentiation
the rate of change/diff of values between picture elements
point tracking
tracing an image obj outline by joining the points that have been selected as edge candidates
radio frequency identification device
technology using radio communication to exchange data between a tag and a reader (computer) for the purpose of identification
reed switches
electrical switches operated by applying a magnetic field
reflex agent
an agent in which historical data is ignored
splitting (segments)
the method used to divide an image into regions by breaking up the image into areas with similar pixel values
steepest descent
to find a local minimum of a fx using the steepest (or gradient) descent, steps taken are proportional to the gradient of the fx at a point
strain gauge
a device used to measure the strain of an obj, usually due to a change of electrical resistance as the material changes in length
strong AI
machines can think in the same way as humans
subsumption architecture
intelligent behavior is decomposed into several different behavioral levels; each layer has its own goal; higher layers are more abstract
symbolic processing
creating AI using high-level symbols, as in conventional computer programming
temporal difference algorithm
a method of learning in which the difference between the estimated reward and the actual reward received is paired with a stimulus that also reflects a future reward
three laws of robotics
a set of three rules written by author Isaac Asimov by which robots are programmed to behave with regard to humans
determining the distance to a point by measuring angles to its known points
voice activity detection
presence or absence of human speech can be detected
weak AI
Machines can demonstrate intelligence but are not necessarily conscious like a human mind