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Printing and Manufacturing Project


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microns
Measurement of card thickness
grams per square meter, gsm
measurement of paper thickness
virgin paper
Paper made from purely wood pulp with no recycled paper added
encapsulation
Inclusion of a printed item withing a transparent outer casing
kerning
Adjusting the letter spacing to achieve the best visual result
quality assurance
Where the designer states what quality the finished product must have
quality control
the measures put in place to the quality standards are met
tolerance
acceptable range of accuracy
colour separation
where the image is separated into the four process colours
cyan, yellow, magenta, black
CYMK
registration marks
a clear mark which checks if printing plates are aligned
densitometer
measures the density of any colour
offset lithography
a type of printing here the plate never touches the paper as the image is transferred to a cylinder
photomechanical transfer
the process used to transfer the image onto a printing plate
sheet fed
where pre-cut paper is fed into the printer
web fed
where large rolls of paper are fed to the printer and cut later
flexography
a high-speed, high-volume print process that can print onto nearly all surfaces
gravure
used on stamps for high quality but expensive print
screen printing
lowest quality printing process but can print on many surfaces, including fabric
press forme
the tool that is used in the die cutting process
spot varnishing
a particular art of a surface is highlighted with varnish
saddle wire stitching
stapling on the fold
comb binding
binding using a plastic spiral
perfect binding
soft cover glued around all the pages
hardbound
hard cover glued around all pages
stereo lithography software
makes a physical 3D prototype. A model of the product is made on the computer and sliced' into many thin layers. Each slice is cut into resin by a laser, and assembled into a complete prototype.
vacuum forming
A sheet of heated polystyrene has a mould raised into it. The air is then sucked out, and the plastic cooled, and the mould removed.
injection moulding
A “hopper” has granules of plastic heated inside it, and is pushed towards the steel mould by an Archimedean screw. A hydraulic ram then forces the plastic into a pressurised mould. The mould is then cooled and the object is released.
Blow moulding
A machine similar to the injection moulding one has plastic heated inside. The mould is then wrapped around the end of the tube produced, and compressed air is forced in, expanding the plastic into the mould.
Line bending
A line is marked along the plastic, then the plastic is heated on both sides until soft. A jig is then used to bend the plastic.