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Anatomic Terms Related to Bones


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appendicular skeleton
bones of the shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
axial skeleton
bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone (U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue)
bone
specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells); forms the skeleton
compact bone
tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones
spongy bone
mesh-like bone tissue found in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity
cancellous bone
mesh-like bone tissue found in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity
long bones
bones of the arms and legs
short bones
bones of the wrist and ankles
flat bones
bones of the ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull
irregular bones
bones of the vertebrae and face
sesamoid bones
round bones found near joints (e.g. patella)
epiphysis
wide ends of a long bone
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
metaphysis
growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum
membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity
cavity within the shaft of the long bones; filled with bone marrow
bone marrow
soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
red bone marrow
functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in the cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
yellow bone marrow
gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells
periosteum
a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular cartilage
a gristle-like substance on bones where they articulate