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A chemical that resembles opiates in its pharmacological effects. Binds to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract.
A substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA-A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.
Inhibits the action of histamine in the body by blocking the receptors of histamine (H1 and H2).
Stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of neurotransmitter substances of the sympathetic nervous system such as catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, etc.
Competitive antagonists that bind to the opioid receptors with higher affinity than agonists but do not activate the receptors. This effectively blocks the receptor, preventing the body from responding to opioids and endorphins.
alter the electrophysiologic properties of the heart through two basic mechanisms: blocking flow through ion channels (conduction) or altering autonomic activity (automaticity).
A substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
Causes smooth muscle relaxation. The effects on smooth muscle cause dilation of bronchial passages, vasodilation in muscle and liver, relaxation of uterine muscle, and release of insulin. They are primarily used to treat asthma and other pulmonary disorders
Class I antiarrythmic agent
Interferes with the sodium channel
Class II antiarrythmic agent
Anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers.
Class III antiarrythmic agent
Affects potassium efflux
Class IV antiarrythmic agent
Affect calcium channels and the AV node. (Calcium Channel Blockers)
Block the action of endogenous catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) -in particular on adrenergic beta receptors, of the sympathetic nervous system
A class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation. They are effective in the arterial circulation, where anticoagulants have little effect.
a class of drugs that provides analgesic (pain-killing) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.
Diuretics that act at the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney.
Drugs that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Calcium Channel Blockers
several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity; opening of calcium channel.
stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity; closing of calcium channel
stimulates phospholipase C activity.
inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity, reduces brainstem vasomotor center-mediated CNS activation
Pancreatic hormone (glucagon)
Produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, it causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream.
Dilates blood vessel by relaxing smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls