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Mechanism of Actions


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Activated Charcoal
A fine black powder with liquid that adsorbs poisonous compounds to its surface, reducing the absorption.
Morphine
Acts on opiate receptors in the brain providing analgesia & sedation. Vasodilator, reducing venous return & myocardial oxygen demand.
Atropine
Blocks acetylcholine at parasympathetic neuroeffector sites on AV and SA nodes; increases cardiac output, heart rate by blocking vagal stimulation
Dextrose
Supplies supplemental glucose.
Diazepam
Antianxiety & anticonvulsant activity. Acts on the CNS to relax the nervous system.
Diphenhydramine
Blocks histamine receptors at the H1 sites. High doses may cause Anticholinergic activity.
Epinephrine
B-1 and B-2 agonist. Stimulates alpha and beta adrenergic receptors causing bronchodilation, cardiac and CNS stimulation.
Naloxone
Competes with opioids at opiate receptor sites
Sodium Bicarbonate
Buffers acid buildup in the body to correct metabolic acidosis and assist returning the blood to a physiologic pH.
Nitroglycerin
Relaxes vascular smooth muschle, causes vasodilation which results in increased coronary blood flow; decrease preload.
Adenosine
Slows conduction through AV node; inhibits reentry pathways through AV node.
Albuterol
Dilates bronchial smooth muscle, selectively stimulates B-2 adreneric receptors of bronchial smooth muscle and lungs.
Amiodarone
prolongs duration of action potential and effective refractory period; non-competitive alpha and beta-adrenergic inhibitions; increases PR and QT intervals; decreases sinus rate, decreases peripheral vascular resistance.
Aspirin
Blocks pain impulses in CNS, reduces inflammation by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis; decreases platelet aggregation
Dopamine
Causes increased cardiac output; acts on B-1 and Alpha receptors, causing vasoconstriction to blood vessels; B-1 stimulation produces inotropic effects with increased cardiac output.
Furosemide
Inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride at proximal and distal tubule and in the loop of Henle causing an increase in urine output and decreased venous return to right atria.
Magnesium Sulfate
Essential for muscle contraction; causes CNS depression and controls seizures by blocking release of acetylcholine at the myoneural junction; decreases sensitivity of motor end plate to acetylcholine and decreases excitability of motor membrane.
Methylprednisolone
A synthetic adrenal corticosteroid, effective as an antiinflammatory and used in the management of allergic reactions and in some cases of shock. It is sometimes used in the treatment of spinal cord injury.
Ondansetron
Prevents nausea/vomiting by blocking serotonin peripherally, centrally and in small intestine.
Diltiazem
Inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membrane during cardiac depolarization; decreases conduction velocity and ventricular rate; produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle.
Glucagon
Acts on hepatocytes to stimulate release of glucose; promotes breakdown of glycogen to glucose in liver to increase blood glucose Indications.
Vasopressin
Promotes reabsorption of water by action on renal tubular epithelium; potent peripheral vasoconstrictor.
Lorazepam
It acts as an anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, and skeletal muscle relaxant. It intensifies the effects of GABA.
Midazolam
CNS depressant causing sedative, anxiolytic, amnesic and hypnotic activity.
Fentanyl
Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS, altering the perception of and response to painful stimuli; produces CNS depression.
Ipratropium
Inhibits interaction of acetylcholine at receptor sites on the bronchial smooth muscle resulting in bronchodilation.
Dexamethasone
Binds with intracellular corticosteroid receptors decreasing capillary permeability and dilation
Calcium Chloride
Positive Inotropic activity increases the strength of the myocardial contractions. Increases ventricular automaticity.
Etomidate
Depresses the activity and reactivity of the brain stem reticular formation; does not cause significant cardiovascular or respiratory depression may cause brief apnea, slightly decreases intracranial pressure.
Sodium Thiosulfate
Converts cyanide to thiocyanate where it can be eliminated by the body
Hydroxocobalamin
A precursor to vitamin B12. Cyanide attaches itself to form vitamin B12. It is then safely excreted in the urine.