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study of government and its policies as affected by physical geography
Foreign Policy
A nation's protocol for making and maintaining relations with foreign countries.
Peaceful discussions with foreign countries; efforts are coordinated with unilateral, bilateral, or multilateral agreements.
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
General Assembly
193 member countries of the United Nations.
Security Council
Five permanent members with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
Economic Sanctions
Boycotts, embargoes, and other economic measures that one country uses to pressure another country into changing its policies.
Military Force
Imposing foreign policy as a last resort after diplomatic and economic efforts have failed; direct military involvement, assistance, and/or training of armed forces.
An effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force.
Violent acts, criminal violations, intimidation, or coercion of government or population.
Intelligence activity directed towards acquiring national defense information.
Increased development or acquisition of WMDs and advanced conventional weapons.
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations.
Direct involvement by one country in another country's affairs.
Superpower exercise political, economic, or ideological control over different geographic regions.
Areas of geopolitical tension that arise when spheres of influence overlap between one or more countries or organizations.
Active conflicts as a result from previous geopolitical faultlines.
Sphere of Influence
A geographical area where one country, state, empire, etc. is very dominant and controlling.
An informal armed conflict between opposing forces by differing ideologies or political agendas.
A type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors.
Organic Theory
A political state must expand to stay alive; states are comprised of humans and must act as such.
Heartland Theory
Controlling Eurasia is the key, pivot point, would provide the base for world conquest.
Rimland Theory
Domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasian heartland would provide the base for world conquest.
Air Power Theory
Creating an imbalance of power, primarily through strategic air power, within the heartland will secure offshore power.
World-Systems Theory
The decisions of countries are based on opening up economic opportunities and extracting resources for individual profit.